The Quantification of K-pop

The Quantification of K-pop
Image by Pete Linforth from Pixabay

Numerical data dominates the discourse around K-pop. In order to get a fuller view, we need to contextualize those numbers with other kinds of information in order to understand K-pop’s worldwide appeal.

With the focus on awards, streams, views and tweets, numbers lead the way we talk about K-pop. 2020 has seen K-pop venture into new territory, with high appearances on Billboard charts, high-profile performances and unprecedented winning of awards. K-pop fans urge others to view and stream to increase the visibility of their favorite groups. Scholars also use numerical data to study the use of social media and understand the spread of K-pop globally. Some see research based on numerical data as the gold standard: “Quantitative research is more preferred over qualitative research because it is more scientific, objective, fast, focused and acceptable” (Formplus Blog).

However, the hyperfocus on numerical data can skew our understanding of K-pop. Numbers are not as objective as many think.  Data can be manipulated and misrepresented. Even when the data is valid, it only presents part of the story. Harry Gough notes: “Sometimes we are so hypnotized by data, we gaze past our own humanity. To get the whole picture, you need the story behind the data – the ‘so what?’, otherwise all you have is data. Which is why qualitative data can be so valuable.”

Twitter data featured in Tamar Herman‘s “10 Years On, Twitter is Shaping the Spread of K-pop,” shows the strengths of numerical data, but also the need for  additional perspectives to understand the whole story of K-pop’s global spread through social media.  Twitter Korea “tracked  data from the past year between July 1, 2019 and June 30, 2020” and “added it to its analysis of the past decade’s growth,” which includes data from Twitter usage from 2010-2020 (Herman). The long-term Twitter usage data reveals a pattern of increase in Twitter conversations related to K-pop.  Such conversations show the domination of boy groups, the increase of usage of Twitter by K-pop artists and the prominence of  certain artists  in certain countries (Herman).

At the same time, the data has limits, meaning there are things it does not take into account. This data covers only Twitter. While it is a major social media platform, there are many K-pop fans on Twitter who never participate in conversations. Other K-pop fans intentionally avoid Twitter in favor of other social media platforms, such as Instagram, YouTube, Tumblr and private Facebook groups.  These K-pop fans are not captured in this data, so what it tells us pertains only to a certain segment of K-pop fans. If we take its conclusions as representative of most or all K-pop fans, we could be misrepresenting the data and what it actually tells us.

Moreover, this data does not tell us why boy groups dominate or why certain artists are popular in certain countries. We need non-numerical data, which could add to the numerical data by understanding “underlying reasons, opinions and motivations” (Gough).  Mentions are just that: mentions. They do not tell us why something is being mentioned.  Asking individuals about the motivations behind their actions, their attitudes and opinions may not be generalizable, but it helps to explain the numbers.

With the rise of research in K-pop, we need multiple methods to comprehensively understand it.

Source

Formplus Blog. “15 Reasons to Choose Quantitative over Qualitative Research.” Formplus Blog. 25 Jun. https://www.formpl.us/blog/quantitative-qualitative-research#:~:text=Quantitative%20research%20is%20more%20preferred,and%20approach%20to%20the%20problem (Accessed 23 Sept 2020).

Harry Gough. “Qualitative vs Quantitative Research: What Is It and When Should You Use It?” qualtrics. 16 Apr 2020. https://www.qualtrics.com/blog/qualitative-research/ (Accessed 23 Sept 2020).

Tamar Herman. “10 Years On, Twitter is Shaping the Spread of K-pop.” Forbes. 21 Sept 2020. https://www.forbes.com/sites/tamarherman/2020/09/21/10-years-on-twitter-is-shaping-the-spread-of-k-pop/#5795c78399a7 (23 Sept 2020).

 

Creative Commons License
The Quantification of K-pop by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 14: POLITICS and SOFT POWER

waters-3178574_1920
Photo credit: jplenio, Pixabay.

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

Winthrop University

Welcome to Part 15 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.  These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, Part 12, Part 13, and Part 14 of the bibliography.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

POLITICS and SOFT POWER

Kim, H. (2005). Korea’s soft power through Hallyu (Korean wave). thesis: Seoul National University. 

Hayashi, Kaori and Eun-Jeung Lee. (2007). The potential of fandom and the limits of soft power: Media representations on the popularity of a Korean melodrama in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal, 10(2): 197-216. doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jym049 (see also, Fandom/Fan Activity)

Janelli, Roger and Dawnhee Yun. (2007). Soft power, Korea and the politics of culture. Institute of East Asia Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

Lee, Keehyeung. (2008(. Mapping out the cultural politics of the “Korean Wave” in contemporary South Korea. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 175 – 189. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.

Lee, Shin Wha. (2008). Soft power and Korean diplomacy: Theory and reality. Wisemen Roundtable on Soft Power in Northeast Asia. Accessed 4 April 2012 from http://121.78.112.190/data/bbs/kor_report/2009090911303012.pdf

Nam, Siho. 2008. Media imperialism waned? The cultural politics of Korean Wave in East Asia.Global Communication and Social Change Division of International Association Conference. May. (see also, Korean Popular Culture in Asia)

Tsai, Eva. 2008. Existing in the Age of Innocence: Pop stars, publics and politics in Asia. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 217- X. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.

Lee, Geun. 2009. A soft power approach to the Korean Wave. The Review of Korean Studies, 12 (2): 123-127.Lee, Sook-Jong. 2009. South Korea’s soft power diplomacy. EAI Issue Briefing no. 1

Park, So Young. 2010. Transnational Adoption, Hallyu, and the Politics of Korean Popular Culture. Biography, 33(1): 151-166.

Luguusharav, Byambakhand. (2011). Soft power in the context of South Korea. Thesis, Central European University. Accessed 23 August 2012 from http://www.etd.ceu.hu/2011/luguusharav_byambakhand.pdf

Choi, Jung-bong. 2012. Of transmutability of Hallyu: Political culture and cultural politics. Presented at the Nam Center for Korean Studies’ Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media Symposium. Accessed 28 August 2012 from https://ii.umich.edu/ncks/news-events/events/conferences—symposia/hallyu-2-0–the-korean-wave-in-the-age-of-social-media/hallyu-program/hallyu-2-0–jung-bong-choi.html

Jang, Gunjoo & Won K. Paik. (2012). Korean wave as tool for Korea’s new cultural diplomacy. Advances in Applied Sociology, 2(3): 196-202. Accessed 16 June 2016 from http://file.scirp.org/Html/22229.html

Watson, Iain. 2012. South Korea’s State-led soft power strategies: Limits on Inter-Korean relations. Asian Journal of Political Science, 20(3):304-325.

Howard, Keith. (2015). Politics, parodies, and the paradox of Psy’s ‘Gangnam Style.’ Romanian Journal of Sociological Studies, (1): 14-29. Accessed 17 June 2016 from http://journalofsociology.ro/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Full-text-pdf.1.pdf

Kim, Youngmi & Valentina Marinescu. (2015). Mapping South Korea’s soft power: Sources, actors, tools, and impact. Romanian Journal of Sociological Studies, (1): 4-12. Accessed 17 June 2016 from http://journalofsociology.ro/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Full-text-pdf..pdf

Gan, Xi Ni. (2019). Soft power of Korean popular culture on consumer behavior in Malaysia. Thesis, UTAR. Retrieved from http://eprints.utar.edu.my/3479/

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 15: FANDOM and FAN ACTIVITY

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

Winthrop University

Welcome to Part 15 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, Part 12, Part 13, and Part 14 of the bibliography.

stage-1531427_1920
Photo credit: Brandon Bolendar, Pixabay.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

Fiske, J.  (1992). The cultural economy of fandom.  In  A. Lewis  (Ed.),  The  adoring audience:  Fan  culture  and popular  media  (pp.  30-49). New York:  Routledge.

Leonard, Sean. (2004). Progress against the law: Fan distribution, copyright and the explosive growth of Japanese animation. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://web.mit.edu/seantek/www/papers/progress-doublespaced.pdf

Leonard, Sean. (2005). Progress against the Law: Anime and Fandom, and the Key to the Globalization of Culture. International Journal of Cultural Studies 8.3 (2005): 281-305.

Yuk Ming Lisa Leung. (2005). Virtualizing the ‘Korean Wave’:  The Politics of (Transnational) Cyberfandom in 〈Daejangguem>. Asian Communication Research Volume 2 Number 2, 2005.9, page(s): 65-90. Abstract accessed 2 November 2011 http://www.dbpia.co.kr/view/ar_view.asp?arid=1030479&A=

Shim, Hyunjoo. (2005). Antifans and the internet: An ethnographic study of participatory drama fans in Korean websites. Thesis, Georgia State University.

Pease, Rowan. (2006).  Internet, fandom and K-wave in China. In K. Howard (Ed.) Korean pop music: Riding the wave. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Hayashi, Kaori and Eun-Jeung Lee. (2007). The potential of fandom and the limits of soft power: Media representations on the popularity of a Korean melodrama in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal, 10(2): 197-216. doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jym049 (see also, Politics and Soft Power)

Siriyuvasak, Ubonrat & Hyunjoon Shin. (2007). Asianizing Kpop: production, consumption and identification patterns among Thai youth. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8(1): 109-136. 

Lee, Soojin, David Scott and Hyounggon Kim. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3): 809-832. 

Mori, Yoshitaka. (2008). Winter Sonata and cultural practices of active fans in Japan: Considering middle-aged women as cultural agents. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 127-X. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.

Iwabuchi, Koichi. (2010). Undoing inter-national fandom in the age of brand nationalism. Mechademia, 5:87-96.

Lee, Hyangjin. (2010). Buying youth: Japanese fandom of the Korean wave. In Black, D., Stephen Epstein and Alison Tokita (Eds.) Complicated Currents. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Monash University ePress. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://books.publishing.monash.edu/apps/bookworm/view/Complicated+Currents/122/xhtml/chapter7.html

Rembert-Lang, LaToya D. (2010-2011). Reinforcing the power of Babel: The impact of copyright law on fansubbing. Intellectual Property Brief, 2(2): 21-33.

Jung, Sun. (2011). Fan activism, cybervigilantism, and Othering mechanisms in K-pop fandom. Transformative Works and Cultures. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/300/287

Jung, Sun. (2011) K-pop, Indonesian fandom, and social media. Transformative Works and Cultures,8. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/289/219

Gatson, Sarah N. and Robin Anne Reid. (2012). Race and ethnicity in fandom. In R.A. Reid and S.N Gatson (Eds.) Race and Ethnicity in Fandom special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, 8. Accessed 23 August 2012 from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/392/252

Lee, Seung Ah. (2012). Of the fans, by the fans, for the fans: The republic of JYJ. Presented at the Nam Center for Korean Studies’ Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media Symposium. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwBKXybAXJQ

Park, Shin-Eui and Woong Jo Chang. (2012). The Korean Wave: Cultivating a global fandom (unpublished). Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/23620889/the-korean-wave-cultivating-a-global-fandom-by-shin-eui-park-

Kim, Andrew Eungi, Fitria Mayasari, and Ingyu Oh. (2013). When tourist audiences encounter each other: Diverging learning behaviors of K-pop fans from Japan and Indonesia. Korea Journal, 53(4): 59-82.

Sung, Sang-Yeon. (2013). K-pop reception and participatory fan culture in Austria. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, (9): 90-104. Accessed 16 June 2016 from https://cross-currents.berkeley.edu/e-journal/issue-9/sung

Jung, Soo Keung. (2014). Global audience participation in the production and consumption of Gangnam Style. Thesis, Georgia State Unversity. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/communication_theses/106/

Jung, Sun & Doobo Shim. (2014). Social distribution: K-pop fan practices in Indonesia and the ‘Gangnam Style’ phenomenon. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 17(5): 485-501.

Nissim, Otmazgin & Irina Lyan. (2014). Hallyu across the desert: K-pop fandom in Israel and Palestine. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, 3(1): 32-55.

Oh, Ingyu & Chong-Mook Lee. (2014). A league of their own: Female supporters of hallyu and Korea-Japan relations. Pacific Focus, 29(2): 284-302.

Williams, J. Patrick & Samantha Xiang Xin Ho. (2016). “Sasaengpaen” or K-pop fan? Singapore youths, authentic identities, and Asian media fandom. Deviant Behavior, 37(1): 81-94.

Habieb, Adnand. (2017). The influence of K-pop in Indonesia’s students behavior. Proceedings of  ISER 50th International Conference. Pp. 47-50. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f944/67c0b42a7b40eba57d91f7e1ca93ff7af9ea.pdf

Swan, Anna Lee. (2017). Situated knowledge, transnational identities: Place and embodiment in K-pop fan reaction videos. Thesis, University of Washington. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/40004

Dwiyota, Sylvia. (2018). The use of code mixing in Tweets by Kpop fans in Twitter. Lingua Litera, 3(1). Retrieved from http://116.251.210.75/index.php/stba1/article/view/9

Hubinette, Tobias. (2018). Who are the Swedish K-pop fans? Revisiting the reception and consumption of Hallyu in post-Gangnam Style Sweden with an emphasis on K-pop. Culture and Empathy, 1(1-4): 34-48. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://www.tobiashubinette.se/korean_popculture_1.pdf

Sari, Dorottya. (2018). The rise of Hallyu in Hungary: An exploratory study about the motivation, behavior, and perception of Hungarian K-pop fans.

Swan, Anna Lee. (2018). Transnational identities and feeling in fandom: place and embodiment in K-pop fan reaction videos. Communication, Culture and Critique, 11(4): 548-565.

Sutton, R. Anderson. (2018). Tracking the Korean wave in transnational Asia: K-pop and K-pop fandom in Indonesia. Asian Musicology, 28: 9-39.

Abd-Rahim, Atiqah. (2019). Online fandom: Social identity and social hierarchy of hallyu fans. The Journal for Undergraduate Ethnography, 9(1). Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://ojs.library.dal.ca/JUE/article/view/8885

Capistrano, Erik, Paolo. (2019). Understanding Filipino Korean pop music fans. Asian Journal of Social Science, 47(1): 59-87.

Crow, Teahlyn Frances. (2019). K-pop, language, and online fandom: An exploration of Korean language use and performativity amongst international K-pop fans. Thesis, Northern Arizona University.

Cruz, Angela, Seo, Yuri, & Binay, Itir. (2019). Cultural globalization from the periphery: Translation practices of English-speaking K-pop fans. Journal of Consumer Culture, In press. (See Also, Language)

De Kosnik, A. & Carrington, A. (2019). Fans of color, fandoms of color. Transformative Works & Cultures, 29(1): 1.

Jansen, Kine Fjeld. (2019). Pop culturally motivated lexical borrowing: Use of Korean in an English-majority fan forum. Thesis, University of Bergen. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/20363

Kang, Jiwon, Lee, Minsung, Park, Eunil et al. (2019). Alliance for my idol: Analyzing the K-pop fandom collaboration network. CHI EA ‘ 19: Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Pp. 1- 6.

Utami, Evi Farsiah. (2019). Social media, celebrity, and fans: A study of Indonesian K-pop fans. Thesis, Taylor’s University. (See Also, Internet and Social Media)

Liu, Chih-Chieh. From ‘Sorry, Sorry’ to ‘That Banana’: Subtitling of a Korean music video as a site of contestation in Taiwan. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/media/5312/04_sorry_sorry_liu.pdf

Vinco, Alessandra & Mazur, Daniela. (n.d.). Fans, hallyu, and broadcast TV: The case of the K-drama “Happy Ending” pioneering in Brazil. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://congress.aks.ac.kr:52525/korean/files/2_1478846583.pdf

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Writing the Book I Wanted to Read – Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop

Image: University of Mississippi Press

Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop (September 2020, University of Mississippi Press) is a scholarly book that examines the ways that Korean pop (“idols), R&B and mainstream hip-hop of the Hallyu (Korean wave) era incorporate elements of black popular music and how global fans understand that influence.

As a senior scholar in transnational American Studies and Global Asias and writer on K-pop for the past 10 years, I thought a book on black music and K-pop should be the follow-up to my first book, Beyond the Chinese Connection: Contemporary Afro-Asian Cultural Production.  It’s a labor of love and it has something for everyone.

What’s In It for Fans

It talks about people you know. It covers K-pop as a 20-year-old music tradition with genres that have developed over time and significant musical acts. It recognizes the development of “idol” acts ranging from veterans to their successors as well as the Korean and African American music producers behind the music, including Yoo Young Jin, Teddy, Teddy Riley and Harvey Mason Jr.  It explores Korean R&B singers and groups as well as mainstream Korean hip-hop artists. Musical acts covered include g.o.d., Shinhwa, 2PM, Wonder Girls, SHINee, TVXQ, Rain (Bi), Fly to the Sky, 4MEN, Brown Eyed Soul, Big Mama, Park Hyo Shin, Lyn, Zion T., Wheesung, Dynamic Duo, Epik High, Primary, Jay Park and Yoon Mirae.

What’s In It for Scholars

It critically engages K-pop through an interdisciplinary lens. Soul in Seoul draws on popular music studies, fan studies and transnational American studies to examine the intertextuality at the heart of K-pop music, an intertextuality that includes African American popular music and distinct Korean music strategies. This intertextuality sounds different through time, across genres and among artists because it draws from a variety of aspects of black popular music. At the same time, the book highlights the critical function of fans, who are responsible for its global spread and function as its music press. It places African American popular culture within a global context, thereby disrupting the homogenizing tendencies of globalization that obscure the impact of an African American popular culture with a complicated relationship to the West. The book is accessible to undergraduate and graduate students and suitable for courses in music and ethnomusicology, ethnic studies, Asian studies, African American studies, American studies, popular culture and media studies.

What’s In It for Everybody

Soul in Seoul is about the music, so it is for anyone who is curious about the ever-changing phenomenon that is K-pop.  Look for the Soul in Seoul Playlist leading up to the book’s release in September 2020 on KPK: Kpop Kollective to hear what all the fuss is about.

Creative Commons License
Writing the Book I Wanted to Read – Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 13: TOURISM

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 13 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, and Part 12 of the bibliography.

element5-digital-uE2T1tCFsn8-unsplash
Photo credit: Element5_Digital, Unsplash.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

Jeong, SH. (2003). Strategy for increase of foreign tourists using the Korean wave in Jeju. Korean Journal of Tourism Management Research

Nakamura, Lisa. (2003). “Where do you want to go today?” Cybernetic tourism, the internet and transnationality. In G. Dines and J. M. Humez Gender, Race and Class in Media. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. pp. 684-687. 

Ya, E.S. (2005). A continuous improvement of Hallyu tourism as a new cultural tourism. Journal of Korean Tourism Policy, 11(3): 57-77.

Kim, Sangkyun, Robinson, Mike, & Long, Philip. (2006). Understanding popular media production and potential tourist consumption: A methodological agenda. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://dspace2.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/handle/2328/26062

Lee, Junghun. (2006). Consuming popular culture, consuming places: The transnational impact of popular culture on destination images and visit intention. The 7th Biennal Conference on Tourism in Asia Conference Proceedings. 6-8. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://www.academia.edu/1150592/CAREER_DEVELOPMENT_OF_TOURISM_and_HOSPITALITY_ACADEMICS

Seo, Jin Wook and Cai, Xuejing. (2006). A study on the factors of Korean TV Drama to stimulate Chinese tourist visiting in Korea. International Tourism Conference on International Tourism Conference 2006 Winter Conference, international tourism trends and prospects; Trends and Prospects of International Tourism Industry.

Chae, Yebyeong. (2007). A study plan to attract more foriegn visitors through analysis of Chinese tourists to Korea. Korea Tourism Research, 2(3): 77-92.

Chan, Brenda. (2007). Film-induced tourism in Asia: A case study of Korean television drama and female viewers’ motivation to visit Korea. Tourism Culture & Communication, 7(3): 207-224.

Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Argusa, Jerome, Lee, Heesung & Chon, Kaye Chon. (2007). Effects of Korean television dramas on the flow of Japanese tourists. Tourism Management, 28(5): 1340 -1353.

Han, Hee Joo & Lee, Jae-Sub. (2008). A Study on the KBS drama Winter Sonata and its impact on Korea’s Hallyu tourism development. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 24 (2/3): 115-126.

Hirata, Yukie. (2008). Touring ‘Dramatic Korea’: Japanese women as viewers of Hanryu dramas and tourists on Hanyru tours. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 143 – 156.. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.(see also, Korean Drama Viewership and Habits)

Lee, Soojin, Scott, David Scott & Kim, Hyounggon. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3): 809-832. 

Lin, Y.S. & Huang, J.Y. (2008). Analyzing the use of TV miniseries for Korea tourism marketing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 24(2/3): 223-227.

Crieghton, Millie. (2009). Japanese surfing the Korean wave: Drama tourism, nationalism, and gender via ethnic eroticisms. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 31: 10-38.  Accessed 7 June 2020 from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Japanese-Surfing-the-Korean-Wave%3A-Drama-Tourism%2C-Creighton/28d1788414368478bdf2d42ba026e08be4acea26

Kim, Hyun Jeong, Chen, Ming-Hsiang, & Su, Hung Jen. (2009).The impact of Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea. Tourism Economics, 15(4): 867-873.

Kim, Sangkyun, Long, & Robinson, Mike. (2009). Small screen, big tourism: the role of popular Korean television dramas in South Korean Tourism. Tourism Geographies, 11(3): 308-333.

Ryan, Chris, Yanning, Zhang, Gu, Huimin & Song, Ling. (2009). Tourism, a classic novel, and television. Journal of Travel Research, 48(1): 14-28.

Kim, Samuel, Lee, Heesung Lee, & Chon, Kye-song. (2010). Segmentation of different types of Hallyu tourists using a multinational model and its marketing implications. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34(3): 341-363.

Kim, Sangkyun. (2010). Extraordinary experience: Re-enacting and photographing at screen tourism locations. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(1): 59-75.

Lee, SoJung & Bai, Billy. (2010). A qualitative analysis of the impact of popular culture on destination image: A case study of Korean wave from Japanese fans. ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst. Accessed 22 November 2011 from http://bit.ly/1tu46Dk

Oh, Yongsoo. (2010). The changes in the Korean wave and the creation of competitiveness of tourism of Korean wave. Korea Tourism Policy, 42 (Winter). Korea Culture and Policy Researcher.

Treesuwan, Aukjinda. (2010). Factors affecting demand for travel to Korea: a case study of Thai tourists to Korea. Thesis, Chulalongkorn University. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://cuir.car.chula.ac.th/handle/123456789/18028

Choi, Jeong Gil, Tkachenko, Tamara, & Sil, Shomir. (2011). On the destination image of Korea by Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 32: 193-194.

Kim, Sangkyun. (2011). A cross-cultural study of the on-site film-tourism experiences among Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Thai visitors to the Daejanggeum theme park, South Korea. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(8): 759-776.

Kim, Sangkyun and O’Connor, Noëlle. (2011). A cross-cultural study of screen-tourists’ profiles. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 3(2):141 – 158.

Lee, SoJung. (2011). The impact of soap opera on destination image: A multivariate repeated measures analysis. ScholarWorks@UMassAmherst. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://bit.ly/2JMME7N

Kim, Sangkyun. (2012). Audience involvement and film tourism experiences: Emotional places, emotional experiences. Tourism Management, 33(2): 387-396.

Kim, Sangkyun. (2012). The relationships of on-site film-tourism experiences, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: The case of Asian audience’s responses to a Korean historical TV drama. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(5): 472-484.

Kim, Sangkyun and Wang, Hua. (2012). From television to the film set:Korean drama Daejanggeum drives Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese and Thai audiences to screen-tourism. International Communication Gazette, 74(5): 423-442.

Kim. Sangkyun and O’Connor, Noëlle. (2012). Film tourism locations and experiences: A popular Korean television drama production perspective. Tourism Review International, 15(3): 243-252.

Kim, Seongseop, Kim, Miju, Agrusa, Jerome,& Lee, Aejoo. (2012). Does a food-themed TV drama affect perceptions of national image and intention to visit a country? An empirical study of Korea TV drama. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(4): 313-326. 

Kim, Andrew Eungi,  Mayasari, Fitria Mayasari, & Oh, Ingyu. (2013). When tourist audiences encounter each other: Diverging learning behaviors of K-pop fans from Japan and Indonesia. Korea Journal, 53(4): 59-82.

Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Agrusa, Jerome, & Chon, Kaye. (2014). The influence of a TV Drama on visitors’ perception: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 31(4): 536-562. 

Rajaguru, Rajesh. (2014). Motion picture-induced visual, vocal and celebrity effects on tourism motivation: Stimulus organism response model. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(4): 375-388.

Yoo, Jae-woong, Samsup Jo, and Jung, Jaemin. (2014). The effects of television viewing, cultural proximity, and ethnocentrism on country image. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal, 42(1):89 – 96. 

Hoa, Pham Hong, Truc, Vo Thi Thanh, & Khuong, Mai Ngoc. (2015). Film-induced tourism – factors affecting Vietnamese intention to visit Korea. Journal of Economics, Business, and Management, 3(5): 565-570. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0154/a665faf109c2a5058bbacb91a477a92cc3fc.pdf

Lee, Won-jun. (2015). The effects of the Korean wave (Hallyu) star and receiver characteristics on T.V. drama satisfaction and intention to revisit. International Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology, 8(11): 347-356. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fde6/38cd0637372022087a7d55ad7942b95f78cb.pdf

Kim, Sangkyun & Nam, Chanwoo. (2016). Hallyu revisited: Challenges and opportunities for the South Korea tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(5): 524-540.

Mah, Han Poh. (2016). Influences of Korean wave on the intention of visiting Korea in Generation Y Malaysia. Thesis, INTI International University. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://eprints.intimal.edu.my/914/

Yen, Chang-Hua & Croy, W. Glen. (2016). Film tourism: celebrity involvement, celebrity worship and destination image. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(10): 1027-1044.

Bae, Eun-song, Chang, Meehyang, Park, Eung-Suk, & Kim, Dae-cheol. (2017). The effect of Hallyu on tourism in Korea. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 3(4). Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.mdpi.com/2199-8531/3/4/22

Choi, H.S. Chris. (2017). Understanding the consumption experience of Chinese tourists: Assessing the effect of audience involvement, flow, and delight on electronic word-of-mouth. Thesis, University of Guelph. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/handle/10214/10252

Trolan, J. (2017). A look into Korean popular culture and its tourism benefits. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review,4(9): 203-209. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://journalissues.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Trolan.pdf

Botovalkina, A.V., Levina, V.S., & Kudinova, K.M. (2018). Economics of cultural tourism: The case of the Korean wave. In Gaol, Filimonova, and Maslennikov (Eds). Financial and Economic Tools Used in the World Hospitality Industry (pp. 203 – 207). London: Taylor & Francis Group.

Kim, Seongsap & Kim, Sangkyun. (2018). Perceived values of TV drama, audience involvement, and behavioral intention in film tourism. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(3): 259-272.

Hasegawa, Eiko. (n.d.). Re-orienting tourism: Japanese tourism in Korea and Asian cultural integration.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

 

Mini Data Note: Female American Fans, K-pop Girl Groups and a Critique of Empowerment

Image by Pexels from Pixabay

Survey responses suggest that American female fans of K-pop girl groups simultaneously critique Korean society and music industry and recognize the impact of their position as foreign fans on their perceptions of representations of empowerment in K-pop.  These are findings from the U Go Girl: The K-pop Girl Group Fan Study and are based on 129 responses from female fans who identified their country of residency as the United States.

Transcultural fandom, when fans admire something outside of their culture, often revolves around nationalism. Koichi Iwabuchi talks about “brand nationalism,” or a “nationalist strategy of disseminating culture for national interests” (90). However, brand nationalism focuses on the interests of the country creating the culture rather than how fans outside of the country make sense of it. The field of fan studies tends to focus on the way fans admire culture, but what about when they critique it? When asked about their attitudes towards concepts/images of K-pop girl groups in relation to empowerment and agency for women, some American female fans of K-pop girl groups articulate a critique of gender dynamics in Korean society, while others recognize the impact of their American identity on their perspectives of female empowerment in Korea.  Both show how an American perspective can influences the discourses around K-pop.

Critique of Korea

Several respondents criticize Korean culture and society for a lack of representation of empowerment by K-pop girl groups. One respondent notes: “I think Korea has a huge issue with misogyny that is reflected in K-pop and that women are forced to be boxed in to one ‘type’ or another in order to appeal to men and to be socially acceptable to both men and women.” Another respondent says: “A lot of times they are held back due to Korea still holding sexist attitudes so I think there is more potential but it will all slowly become better.” How much do the respondents know about the history of Korean culture? Do they form such opinions based on Western media, which has been known to skew representations of foreign culture? Is “Korea’s issue with misogyny” or its “sexist attitudes” different than those within the United States?

Recognition of American Subjectivity

At the same time, other respondents recognize their perspective as American fans of a foreign popular culture. One respondent notes: “We have to remember as foreign fans, the concepts, images and sonic soundscapes that we hear/see in K-pop are coming from a unique place and culture. That means we are not always going to immediately understand it. . . . . We all have different experiences and thus different frameworks. Foreign Kpop fans need to remember this.” Another respondent notes: “This is a tricky question, because I’m a white American woman speaking on gender politics in Korea, a country I have no relation to and have never lived in. . . . At the end of the day, I’m not a defining voice on the subject, all I am is someone trying to find grey area in music and entertainment from a country that isn’t my own. I still am friends with quite a few Korean-Americans so I hear what they think on certain concepts, and that contributes a lot to my hesitancy to place my Western ideals on another country dismissively.” These fans recognize that their perceptions of Korean culture are filtered through their experiences as fans outside of the country. What kind of knowledge would a fan have to gain to make a valid critique of representations of empowerment? Do their perspectives not count because they are foreign fans? Do ideas about empowerment change as they cross national boundaries?

Other Observations

Such divergent responses suggest that perceptions by American fans may be influenced by American culture in general.  The impact of nationalism has been explored in fan studies.  Kyong Yoon’s study of K-pop fans in Vancouver included Canadians of East Asian descent, white Canadians and one Canadian of mixed race. Yoon noted: “Some fans of Asian descent engaged with K-pop in relation to their Asian Canadian subject positions, while White Canadian fans emphasized their individual and alternative cultural tastes that do not belong to mainstream culture” (185). Yoon suggests that a Canadian context informs the way these fans interact with K-pop.

The United States represents a unique context informed by a history of the interplay among gender, ethnicity and nationality. As a nation developed by a variety of immigrant groups and a major site for women’s rights, the United States also elides those very varied experiences in favor of one dominant narrative on empowerment, currently often represented as fierce, outspoken and brash. Images and concepts not in keeping with this narrative might be construed as not empowering. This suggests that a distinct and particular American cultural lens can have an impact on the way fans read empowerment in Korean girl groups.

Sources

Iwabuchi, Koichi.”Undoing Inter‐national Fandom in the Age of Brand Nationalism’. Mechademia 5 (2010): . 87‐96.

Yoon, Kyong. “Transnational Fandom in the Making: K-pop Fans in Vancouver.” the International Communication Gazette vol 81, no. 2 (2018): 176-192. DOI: 10.1177/1748048518802964.

Creative Commons License
Mini Data Note: Female American Fans, K-pop Girl Groups and a Critique of Empowerment by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

How We Get Down: KPK Documents Your Stuff!

Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

As part of KPK’s decennial year, we are launching K-pop Commons, a repository of K-pop project ephemera – documents and artifacts that were not created for formal publication or commercial display (e.g., books, book chapters, galleries/exhibitions), but that are meaningful to the creators of the items and that reflect the impact of K-pop on those who know it best: fans. 

Continue reading “How We Get Down: KPK Documents Your Stuff!”

Into the New World: Research Suggests Multi-Fandom the Norm for Veteran K-pop Fans

Source: Pixabay

While it may seem that the current norm in K-pop is single-fandom (the tendency to support just one artist), data suggests that older K-pop fans started and continue to be multi-fandom. This may be another way the overall K-pop fandom has shifted in the past few years.

With the rise of K-pop groups, their individual fandoms have also garnered more attention, leading some to focus on using a single fandom to define K-pop fandom in general. However, 316 responses collected between April 29, 2011 and March 4, 2015 suggest that K-pop fans of that era exhibited very different behaviors and attitudes. Respondents were asked the open-ended question, “How did you become interested in K-pop?”

Many respondents related their entrance into K-pop with specific groups, and overwhelmingly with one group in particular: SHINee. Other high recurring groups include BigBang, Super Junior and TVXQ. Rain was the most-cited solo artist. What is interesting is that these groups all debuted between 2003 and 2009. The first responses collected in 2011, so none of these groups were brand new to the K-pop scene at the time that respondents encountered them. For this generation of K-pop fan, the appeal of K-pop was asynchronous, meaning that individuals became fans, not as a result of debut promotion or marketing, but by other means.

More importantly, respondents routinely noted that once they discovered one K-pop group, they were motivated to look for additional groups. One noted, “My friend showed me SHINee’s Lucifer video, and I was immediately addicted to them.  So then I started looking up other groups too.”  Another responded wrote: “I started listening to more BigBang, and then other groups such as 2NE1 and SHINee, and then read a ton of Wikipedia pages about different groups and record labels and learned about the training system that K-pop stars go through before debuting. I also started watching variety shows that K-pop idols appear on, and find that whole concept really interesting too.” I call this phenomenon branching.

Some respondents go through a great deal of effort to expand to additional K-pop groups. One respondent explained how a search to find one K-pop song led to more: “However, the obsession didn’t just stop with that song. During the many hours that I spent trying to find the name of that song, I discovered many other catchy tunes and fell in love with a new genre of music that I had never heard of before.”  Several respondents use the term “research” to describe the activity of looking for more K-pop groups:  “I became interested in K-pop when I accidentally happened upon a Super Junior song on YouTube about 3-4 years ago. I don’t remember what song it was. But after I heard it I was thinking… Wow. This is good stuff. I want more. I wanna hear more. I researched, found more groups I absolutely fell in love with. Then 2-3 years ago, I found Big Bang, followed by 2NE1. And now all of the other amazing groups I love.”

For some, the quest for more K-pop groups takes them to other forms of Korean entertainment. K-drama and K-pop are linked, as members of K-pop groups often star in Korean television dramas and perform on soundtracks for the shows. One respondent noted:  “I happened across Kdramas and liked an actor in it. I found out he was a singer and then discovered other singers, groups, bands, etc.” Another explained:  “Hulu.com recommended a Kdrama to me called “Boys over Flowers” and as I became more interested in the characters and the OST for the show, I started to look up various actors/singers on YouTube.”

And while “idols” may be the way many are introduced to K-pop, the phenomenon of branching may take fans far afield. One respondent wrote:  “I think, what’s 2pm? I think my friend had mentioned groups named 2pm and 2am to me before, and I thought they were silly names. But I really liked Jason in Dream High, so I decided to look up this Wooyoung on YouTube. That day I discovered my love for K-pop. I became a hardcore Hottest, and expanded the groups and genres I listened to little by little until I was listening to anything from rap to pop to ballads to indie. All in a language I can’t completely understand.”

One respondent summed up the branching phenomenon with this formula:

JPop = discovered Tohoshinki = wiki = O.O = OMG! = google other kpop artists

Such findings suggest earlier generations of K-pop fans tend to develop more broad interests in K-pop that go beyond one group, while more contemporary fans seem to be more devoted to single groups. By only focusing exclusively on one group, they may be less knowledgeable about the larger K-pop and as a result may have distorted perceptions of it.  These findings also support  earlier findings that point to a more diverse general K-pop fandom, one that at the very least, is made up of those who support individual K-pop groups and those who support K-pop in general. Both may be needed for the continued viability of K-pop. Such findings reveal fan behavior that suggests that the appeal of K-pop is more complicated.  The K-pop landscape continues to change.

Creative Commons License
Into the New World: Research Suggests Multi-fandom the Norm for Veteran K-pop Fans by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 10: LANGUAGE

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 10 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, and Part 9 of the bibliography.

king-sejong-the-great-1833683_1920
King Sejong the Great (세종대왕). Photo credit: hgyjhj486, Pixabay.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu

NOTE:  In order to make it easier to locate authors (and where possible), I’ve modified these APA Style citations by adding full author names where possible.

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2004). Linguistic hybridization in K-pop: discourse of self-assertion and resistance. World Englishes, 23(3): 429-450. doi: 10.1111/j.0883-2919.2004.00367.x

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2006). Linguistic Hybridization in K-pop, In Kingsley Bolton and Braj B. Kachru (eds.), Critical Concepts in Linguistics: World Englishes. Pp.299-326. London & New York: Routledge. 6 volume set. vol. 4.

You, Byeong Keun. (2005). Children negotiating Korean American ethnic identity through their heritage language. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(3): 711-721. doi: 10.1080/15235882.2005.10162860

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2007). “Im the illest fucka”: An Analysis of African American English in South Korean Hip Hop. English Today: The International Review of the English Language 23(2): 54-60.

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2007). Language and Identity: Entertainers in South Korean Pop Culture, In Miguel Mantero (ed.), Identity and Second Language Learning. pp. 283-303. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Park, Joseph Sung Yul. (2009). Regimenting languages on Korean television: subtitles and institutional authority. Text & Talk, 29(5): 547-570.

Hu, Brian. (2010). Korean TV Serials in the English-Language Diaspora: Translating Difference Online and Making It Racial. The Velvet Light Trap, 66 (Fall): 36 -49.

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2010). Glocalizing Keepin’ it real: South Korean hip hop playas. In M. Terkourafi (Ed.) Languages of Global Hip-Hop. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 139 – 161.

Rembert-Lang, LaToya D. (2010-2011). Reinforcing the power of Babel: The impact of copyright law on fansubbing. Intellectual Property Brief, 2(2): 21-33. 

Lee, J.S. (2011). Globalization of African American vernacular English in popular culture Blinglish in Korean hip hop. English World-Wide, 32(1): 1-23.

Dwiyota, Sylvia. (2018). The use of code mixing in Tweets by Kpop fans in Twitter. Lingua Litera, 3(1). Retrieved from http://116.251.210.75/index.php/stba1/article/view/9

Touhami, Batoul & Al-Abed Al Haq, Fawwaz. (2017). The influence of the Korean wave on the language of international fans: Case study of Algerian fans. Sino-US English Teaching, 14(10): 598-626.

Cheon, Sang Yee. Teaching the language and culture of Korean through film and tv drama in an American university setting. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://hawaii.edu/korea/pages/announce/inha07/papers/cheon.pdf

King, Ross. Globalization and the future of the Korean language. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://www.academia.edu/3358628/Globalization_and_the_future_of_the_Korean_language_some_preliminary_thoughts

Jin, Dal Yong & Woongjae Ryoo. (2014). Critical interpretation of hybrid K-pop: The global-local paradigm of English-mixing in lyrics. Popular Music & Society, 37(2): 113-131.

Kim, Grace MyHyun. (2016). Practicing multilingual identities: Online interactions in a Korean dramas forum. International Multilingual Research Journal, 10(4): 254-272. (See Also, Internet and Social Media)

Chun, Elaine W. (2017). How to drop a name: Hybridity, purity, and the K-pop fan. Language in Society, 46(1): 57-76.

Aiyah, Aznur. (2017). Korean-English language translational action of K-pop social media content: A case study on Bangtan Sonyeodan’s (BTS) Official Twitter. 3L: Language, Lingugstics, Literature, 23(3). Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://ejournal.ukm.my/3l/article/view/20452

Touhami, Batoul & Al-Abed Al Haq, Fawwaz. (2017). The influence of the Korean wave on the language of international fans: Case study of Algerian fans. Sino-US English Teaching, 14(10): 598-626.

Dwiyota, Sylvia. (2018). The use of code mixing in Tweets by Kpop fans in Twitter. Lingua Litera, 3(1). Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://116.251.210.75/index.php/stba1/article/view/9

Crow, Teahlyn Frances. (2019). K-pop, language, and online fandom: An exploration of Korean language use and performativity amongst international K-pop fans. Thesis, Northern Arizona University. 

Cruz, Angela, Seo, Yuri, & Binay, Itir. (2019). Cultural globalization from the periphery: Translation practices of English-speaking K-pop fans. Journal of Consumer Culture, In press.

Jansen, Kine Fjeld. (2019). Pop culturally motivated lexical borrowing: Use of Korean in an English-majority fan forum. Thesis, University of Bergen. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/20363

Cheon, Sang Yee. Teaching the language and culture of Korean through film and tv drama in an American university setting. Accessed 5 April 2012 from http://hawaii.edu/korea/pages/announce/inha07/papers/cheon.pdf

King, Ross. Globalization and the future of the Korean language. Accessed 4 April 2012 from http://www.asia.ubc.ca/fileadmin/user_upload/asian_studies/faculty/elena_yugai/Publications/RKing_07__Globalization_and_the_Future_of_K_Lang.pdf

Shin, Seong-Chu. (n.d.) Students’ motivation, learning experiences, and learning style preferences: A survey on Australian college students of Korean. Accessed from http://rp-www.arts.usyd.edu.au/korean/downloads/KSAA2009/Global_Korea_Proceedings_401-417_Shin.pdf

Happy Reading!

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License