Writing the Book I Wanted to Read – Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop

Image: University of Mississippi Press

Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop (September 2020, University of Mississippi Press) is a scholarly book that examines the ways that Korean pop (“idols), R&B and mainstream hip-hop of the Hallyu (Korean wave) era incorporate elements of black popular music and how global fans understand that influence.

As a senior scholar in transnational American Studies and Global Asias and writer on K-pop for the past 10 years, I thought a book on black music and K-pop should be the follow-up to my first book, Beyond the Chinese Connection: Contemporary Afro-Asian Cultural Production.  It’s a labor of love and it has something for everyone.

What’s In It for Fans

It talks about people you know. It covers K-pop as a 20-year-old music tradition with genres that have developed over time and significant musical acts. It recognizes the development of “idol” acts ranging from veterans to their successors as well as the Korean and African American music producers behind the music, including Yoo Young Jin, Teddy, Teddy Riley and Harvey Mason Jr.  It explores Korean R&B singers and groups as well as mainstream Korean hip-hop artists. Musical acts covered include g.o.d., Shinhwa, 2PM, Wonder Girls, SHINee, TVXQ, Rain (Bi), Fly to the Sky, 4MEN, Brown Eyed Soul, Big Mama, Park Hyo Shin, Lyn, Zion T., Wheesung, Dynamic Duo, Epik High, Primary, Jay Park and Yoon Mirae.

What’s In It for Scholars

It critically engages K-pop through an interdisciplinary lens. Soul in Seoul draws on popular music studies, fan studies and transnational American studies to examine the intertextuality at the heart of K-pop music, an intertextuality that includes African American popular music and distinct Korean music strategies. This intertextuality sounds different through time, across genres and among artists because it draws from a variety of aspects of black popular music. At the same time, the book highlights the critical function of fans, who are responsible for its global spread and function as its music press. It places African American popular culture within a global context, thereby disrupting the homogenizing tendencies of globalization that obscure the impact of an African American popular culture with a complicated relationship to the West. The book is accessible to undergraduate and graduate students and suitable for courses in music and ethnomusicology, ethnic studies, Asian studies, African American studies, American studies, popular culture and media studies.

What’s In It for Everybody

Soul in Seoul is about the music, so it is for anyone who is curious about the ever-changing phenomenon that is K-pop.  Look for the Soul in Seoul Playlist leading up to the book’s release in September 2020 on KPK: Kpop Kollective to hear what all the fuss is about.

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Writing the Book I Wanted to Read – Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


How We Get Down: KPK Documents Your Stuff!

Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

As part of KPK’s decennial year, we are launching K-pop Commons, a repository of K-pop project ephemera – documents and artifacts that were not created for formal publication or commercial display (e.g., books, book chapters, galleries/exhibitions), but that are meaningful to the creators of the items and that reflect the impact of K-pop on those who know it best: fans. 

Continue reading “How We Get Down: KPK Documents Your Stuff!”

The Once and Future Fandom: How Media Shapes Perceptions of K-pop Fans

Image of varying tones of gold in a kaleidoscope
Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Whether K-pop fans are praised political activists or denigrated as delusional enthusiasts, both characterizations reduce K-pop fans, especially Black fans, and fail to recognize their value beyond politics.

Up until recently, K-pop fans had a questionable reputation. On March 19, 2020, I did a search for K-pop fans, and these are the search terms Google offered:

Screen capture of Google search for k-pop fan
Screen capture, Google search for K-pop fan

This is what today’s search (June 24) for K-pop fan brings:

Screen shot of Google search for K-pop fan
Google search for K-pop fan

In the span of a few months, the perception of K-pop fans has changed, largely due to several events with political ramifications, including overwhelming the Dallas police iWatch Dallas app, taking over the #whitelivesmatter hashtag, and most recently, disrupting President Trump’s Oklahoma rally. Coverage by mainstream media outlets have praised these actions, suggesting that K-pop fans now have value because they are politically active.

However, others are pointing out that calling K-pop the newest wave of political activists is not as positive as it seems. Abby Ohlheiser does a really great job of explaining the complexity surrounding K-pop fandom and why the sudden characterization of K-pop fans as activists is problematic:

Some stans, and the academics who study them, say that while it’s great to see fans use these platforms for good, the rapid veneration is overshadowing the more complex dynamics underlying K-pop fandom. And, they say, the newfound reputation for anti-racist heroism largely ignores the voices of black K-pop fans, who have struggled with racism and harassment within the community.

The K-pop fan-as-activist is the other side of the K-pop-fan-as-crazy coin. Both are imposed by the media and narrowly construe K-pop fandom. K-pop fan activity did not suddenly become important or significant just because it intersects with the political arena or because major outlets say so. Fans were always important and significant, in and of themselves. K-pop fans’ ability to organize and mobilize for a cause can be seen as early as 2012, when fans of Seo Taiji, often credited with being the first major figure in K-pop, fundraised to create the “SeoTaiji Forest” in Brazil to support conservation. It’s the same organizing used to support groups when they promote. But it’s also scores of smaller, collaborative projects that collect information in informal archive projects. K-pop fans have always been proactive in producing culture around K-pop.

This has a particular impact for Black K-pop fans. While Black K-pop fans have been part of K-pop fandom since its early days, they are increasingly being brought to the fore solely within the context of K-pop activism around Black Lives Matter, or increasingly, to articulate their negative experiences within the fandom. While both are important in understanding the experiences of Black fans, they are not the only way to understand those experiences. Raising Black K-pop fan voices only to tell stories of racism and discrimination suggests that Black fans cannot talk about just being a fan, who they like and why. It excludes Black fans from having a voice on any other aspect of K-pop and silences them under the auspices of giving them a voice.

Black fans, and Black people in general, have a complex experience one that includes joy.  Imani Perry recently wrote for The Atlantic: “My elders taught me that I belonged to a tradition of resilience, of music that resonates across the globe, of spoken and written language that sings. . . . The injustice is inescapable. So yes, I want the world to recognize our suffering. But I do not want pity from a single soul. Sin and shame are found in neither my body nor my identity. Blackness is an immense and defiant joy.” Calling on Black voices only confirm their negative experience with ignoring their opinion on everything else in the fandom excludes them from being fans in the truest sense of the word. If the only way the public sees Black fan is as a tragic victim, we reduce the Black fan.

K-pop fans in general, and Black K-pop fans in particular, are having characterizations imposed on them by entities that do not have the best track record on K-pop coverage.  This narrative of activism is being generated by mainstream media outlets rather than the fans themselves. As a result, it continues the age-old tendency of the media reducing K-pop fans to the simplest of terms.


Abby Ohlheiser. “How K-pop Fas Became Celebrated Online Vigilantes.” MIT Technology Review. 5 Jun 2020. https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/06/05/1002781/kpop-fans-and-black-lives-matter/ (Accessed 24 Jun 2020).

Imani Perry. “Racism Is Terrible. Blackness Is Not.” The Atlantic. 15 June 2020. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/06/racism-terrible-blackness-not/613039/ (Accessed 24 June 2020).

Kim Rahn. “Fans Name ‘Seoetaiji Forest’ in Brazil.” The Korea Times. March 2012. http://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/news/nation/2012/03/113_107088.html (Accessed 24 Jun 2020).

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The Once and Future Fandom: How Media Shapes Perceptions of K-pop Fans by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 15: FANDOM and FAN ACTIVITY

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

Winthrop University

Welcome to Part 15 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, Part 12, Part 13, and Part 14 of the bibliography.

Photo credit: Brandon Bolendar, Pixabay.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

Fiske, J.  (1992). The cultural economy of fandom.  In  A. Lewis  (Ed.),  The  adoring audience:  Fan  culture  and popular  media  (pp.  30-49). New York:  Routledge.

Leonard, Sean. (2004). Progress against the law: Fan distribution, copyright and the explosive growth of Japanese animation. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://web.mit.edu/seantek/www/papers/progress-doublespaced.pdf

Leonard, Sean. (2005). Progress against the Law: Anime and Fandom, and the Key to the Globalization of Culture. International Journal of Cultural Studies 8.3 (2005): 281-305.

Yuk Ming Lisa Leung. (2005). Virtualizing the ‘Korean Wave’:  The Politics of (Transnational) Cyberfandom in 〈Daejangguem>. Asian Communication Research Volume 2 Number 2, 2005.9, page(s): 65-90. Abstract accessed 2 November 2011 http://www.dbpia.co.kr/view/ar_view.asp?arid=1030479&A=

Shim, Hyunjoo. (2005). Antifans and the internet: An ethnographic study of participatory drama fans in Korean websites. Thesis, Georgia State University.

Pease, Rowan. (2006).  Internet, fandom and K-wave in China. In K. Howard (Ed.) Korean pop music: Riding the wave. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Hayashi, Kaori and Eun-Jeung Lee. (2007). The potential of fandom and the limits of soft power: Media representations on the popularity of a Korean melodrama in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal, 10(2): 197-216. doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jym049 (see also, Politics and Soft Power)

Siriyuvasak, Ubonrat & Hyunjoon Shin. (2007). Asianizing Kpop: production, consumption and identification patterns among Thai youth. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8(1): 109-136. 

Lee, Soojin, David Scott and Hyounggon Kim. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3): 809-832. 

Mori, Yoshitaka. (2008). Winter Sonata and cultural practices of active fans in Japan: Considering middle-aged women as cultural agents. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 127-X. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.

Iwabuchi, Koichi. (2010). Undoing inter-national fandom in the age of brand nationalism. Mechademia, 5:87-96.

Lee, Hyangjin. (2010). Buying youth: Japanese fandom of the Korean wave. In Black, D., Stephen Epstein and Alison Tokita (Eds.) Complicated Currents. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Monash University ePress. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://books.publishing.monash.edu/apps/bookworm/view/Complicated+Currents/122/xhtml/chapter7.html

Rembert-Lang, LaToya D. (2010-2011). Reinforcing the power of Babel: The impact of copyright law on fansubbing. Intellectual Property Brief, 2(2): 21-33.

Jung, Sun. (2011). Fan activism, cybervigilantism, and Othering mechanisms in K-pop fandom. Transformative Works and Cultures. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/300/287

Jung, Sun. (2011) K-pop, Indonesian fandom, and social media. Transformative Works and Cultures,8. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/289/219

Gatson, Sarah N. and Robin Anne Reid. (2012). Race and ethnicity in fandom. In R.A. Reid and S.N Gatson (Eds.) Race and Ethnicity in Fandom special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, 8. Accessed 23 August 2012 from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/392/252

Lee, Seung Ah. (2012). Of the fans, by the fans, for the fans: The republic of JYJ. Presented at the Nam Center for Korean Studies’ Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media Symposium. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwBKXybAXJQ

Park, Shin-Eui and Woong Jo Chang. (2012). The Korean Wave: Cultivating a global fandom (unpublished). Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/23620889/the-korean-wave-cultivating-a-global-fandom-by-shin-eui-park-

Kim, Andrew Eungi, Fitria Mayasari, and Ingyu Oh. (2013). When tourist audiences encounter each other: Diverging learning behaviors of K-pop fans from Japan and Indonesia. Korea Journal, 53(4): 59-82.

Sung, Sang-Yeon. (2013). K-pop reception and participatory fan culture in Austria. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, (9): 90-104. Accessed 16 June 2016 from https://cross-currents.berkeley.edu/e-journal/issue-9/sung

Jung, Soo Keung. (2014). Global audience participation in the production and consumption of Gangnam Style. Thesis, Georgia State Unversity. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/communication_theses/106/

Jung, Sun & Doobo Shim. (2014). Social distribution: K-pop fan practices in Indonesia and the ‘Gangnam Style’ phenomenon. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 17(5): 485-501.

Nissim, Otmazgin & Irina Lyan. (2014). Hallyu across the desert: K-pop fandom in Israel and Palestine. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, 3(1): 32-55.

Oh, Ingyu & Chong-Mook Lee. (2014). A league of their own: Female supporters of hallyu and Korea-Japan relations. Pacific Focus, 29(2): 284-302.

Williams, J. Patrick & Samantha Xiang Xin Ho. (2016). “Sasaengpaen” or K-pop fan? Singapore youths, authentic identities, and Asian media fandom. Deviant Behavior, 37(1): 81-94.

Habieb, Adnand. (2017). The influence of K-pop in Indonesia’s students behavior. Proceedings of  ISER 50th International Conference. Pp. 47-50. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f944/67c0b42a7b40eba57d91f7e1ca93ff7af9ea.pdf

Swan, Anna Lee. (2017). Situated knowledge, transnational identities: Place and embodiment in K-pop fan reaction videos. Thesis, University of Washington. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/40004

Dwiyota, Sylvia. (2018). The use of code mixing in Tweets by Kpop fans in Twitter. Lingua Litera, 3(1). Retrieved from

Hubinette, Tobias. (2018). Who are the Swedish K-pop fans? Revisiting the reception and consumption of Hallyu in post-Gangnam Style Sweden with an emphasis on K-pop. Culture and Empathy, 1(1-4): 34-48. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://www.tobiashubinette.se/korean_popculture_1.pdf

Sari, Dorottya. (2018). The rise of Hallyu in Hungary: An exploratory study about the motivation, behavior, and perception of Hungarian K-pop fans.

Swan, Anna Lee. (2018). Transnational identities and feeling in fandom: place and embodiment in K-pop fan reaction videos. Communication, Culture and Critique, 11(4): 548-565.

Sutton, R. Anderson. (2018). Tracking the Korean wave in transnational Asia: K-pop and K-pop fandom in Indonesia. Asian Musicology, 28: 9-39.

Abd-Rahim, Atiqah. (2019). Online fandom: Social identity and social hierarchy of hallyu fans. The Journal for Undergraduate Ethnography, 9(1). Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://ojs.library.dal.ca/JUE/article/view/8885

Capistrano, Erik, Paolo. (2019). Understanding Filipino Korean pop music fans. Asian Journal of Social Science, 47(1): 59-87.

Crow, Teahlyn Frances. (2019). K-pop, language, and online fandom: An exploration of Korean language use and performativity amongst international K-pop fans. Thesis, Northern Arizona University.

Cruz, Angela, Seo, Yuri, & Binay, Itir. (2019). Cultural globalization from the periphery: Translation practices of English-speaking K-pop fans. Journal of Consumer Culture, In press. (See Also, Language)

De Kosnik, A. & Carrington, A. (2019). Fans of color, fandoms of color. Transformative Works & Cultures, 29(1): 1.

Jansen, Kine Fjeld. (2019). Pop culturally motivated lexical borrowing: Use of Korean in an English-majority fan forum. Thesis, University of Bergen. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/20363

Kang, Jiwon, Lee, Minsung, Park, Eunil et al. (2019). Alliance for my idol: Analyzing the K-pop fandom collaboration network. CHI EA ‘ 19: Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Pp. 1- 6.

Utami, Evi Farsiah. (2019). Social media, celebrity, and fans: A study of Indonesian K-pop fans. Thesis, Taylor’s University. (See Also, Internet and Social Media)

Liu, Chih-Chieh. From ‘Sorry, Sorry’ to ‘That Banana’: Subtitling of a Korean music video as a site of contestation in Taiwan. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/media/5312/04_sorry_sorry_liu.pdf

Vinco, Alessandra & Mazur, Daniela. (n.d.). Fans, hallyu, and broadcast TV: The case of the K-drama “Happy Ending” pioneering in Brazil. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://congress.aks.ac.kr:52525/korean/files/2_1478846583.pdf

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Soul in Seoul Playlist: g.o.d (Groove Overdose)

Image by SanderSmit from Pixabay

Veteran “idol” group g.o.d (Groove Overdose) is the first K-pop artist explored in-depth in Soul in Seoul: African American Popular Music and K-pop. When writing the book, I always knew that g.o.d formed the foundation of understanding the use of R&B rhythm and vocals for later “idol” groups. Their consistent use of funk rhythms and vocals, especially gospel-inflected vocals over their decades-long career allows for an exploration of their sound over time, which remains remarkably consistent. The group’s engagement with black popular music ranges from soul ballads to upbeat dance tracks. Below find a collection of the best examples of g.o.d’s engagement with black popular music. (*Tracks marked with an * are explored further in the book).

  1. Observation, Chapter 1 (1999)* | 2. So You Can Come Back to Me, Chapter 1 (1999) | 3. With Little Men, Chapter 1 (1999) | 4. Promise, Chapter 1 (1999) | 5. Love and Remember, Chapter 2 (1999) | 6. Dance All Night, Chapter 2 (1999) | 7. Friday Night, Chapter 2 (1999) | 8. Five Men’s Story, Chapter 2 (1999) | 9. 21C Our Hope, Chapter 2 (1999) | 10. One Candle, Chapter 3 (2000)* | 11. Need You, Chapter 3 (2000) | 12. Lie, Chapter 3 (2000) | 13. Dance With Me, Chapter 3 (2000) | 14. Road, Chapter 4 (2001) | 15. The Place You Where You Should Be, Chapter 4 (2001) | 16. Let’s Go, Chapter 4 (2001) | 17. Report to the Dance Floor, Chapter 5: Letter (2002) | 18. Lately, Chapter 5: Letter (2002) | 19. The Reason Why Opposites Attract (Bandaega Kkeulrineun Iyu), Ordinary Day (2004) |  20. I Don’t Know Your Heart (Ni Mameul Molla), Into the Sky (2005) |  21. It’s Alright (ft. G-Soul), Into the Sky (2005) | 22. Crime (Mujoe), Into the Sky (2005) | 23. Change, Into the Sky (2005) | 24. Sky Blue Promise, Chapter 8 (2014)* | 25. Stand Up, Chapter 8 (2014) | 26. Saturday Night, Chapter 8 (2014)* | 27. G’swag, Chapter 8 (2014)

Soul in Seoul Playlist: g.o.d, “Change”

Image by Free-Photos from Pixabay

“Change” is from g.o.d’s (Groove Overdose) 2005 album Into the Sky. It combines rap with the distinct soul vocals of Kim Tae Woo.  The track’s lyrics were written by Park Jin Young, the CEO of JYP Entertainment also known as The Asiansoul, while the composition and arrangement is credited to Mad Soul Child.


okatokat003. “g.o.d – [NeverSayGoodbye Concert] Change.” YouTube. 6 Aug 2008. https://youtu.be/XMakx_Qzvtg (Accessed 23 Apr 2020).

The Soul in Seoul Playlist includes tracks from Korean pop, R&B and hip-hop artists that appear in the book, Soul in Seoul: African American Music and K-pop. Tracks with an * are analyzed in the book. See the complete playlist here. 

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 13: TOURISM

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 13 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, and Part 12 of the bibliography.

Photo credit: Element5_Digital, Unsplash.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

Jeong, SH. (2003). Strategy for increase of foreign tourists using the Korean wave in Jeju. Korean Journal of Tourism Management Research

Nakamura, Lisa. (2003). “Where do you want to go today?” Cybernetic tourism, the internet and transnationality. In G. Dines and J. M. Humez Gender, Race and Class in Media. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. pp. 684-687. 

Ya, E.S. (2005). A continuous improvement of Hallyu tourism as a new cultural tourism. Journal of Korean Tourism Policy, 11(3): 57-77.

Kim, Sangkyun, Robinson, Mike, & Long, Philip. (2006). Understanding popular media production and potential tourist consumption: A methodological agenda. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://dspace2.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/handle/2328/26062

Lee, Junghun. (2006). Consuming popular culture, consuming places: The transnational impact of popular culture on destination images and visit intention. The 7th Biennal Conference on Tourism in Asia Conference Proceedings. 6-8. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://www.academia.edu/1150592/CAREER_DEVELOPMENT_OF_TOURISM_and_HOSPITALITY_ACADEMICS

Seo, Jin Wook and Cai, Xuejing. (2006). A study on the factors of Korean TV Drama to stimulate Chinese tourist visiting in Korea. International Tourism Conference on International Tourism Conference 2006 Winter Conference, international tourism trends and prospects; Trends and Prospects of International Tourism Industry.

Chae, Yebyeong. (2007). A study plan to attract more foriegn visitors through analysis of Chinese tourists to Korea. Korea Tourism Research, 2(3): 77-92.

Chan, Brenda. (2007). Film-induced tourism in Asia: A case study of Korean television drama and female viewers’ motivation to visit Korea. Tourism Culture & Communication, 7(3): 207-224.

Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Argusa, Jerome, Lee, Heesung & Chon, Kaye Chon. (2007). Effects of Korean television dramas on the flow of Japanese tourists. Tourism Management, 28(5): 1340 -1353.

Han, Hee Joo & Lee, Jae-Sub. (2008). A Study on the KBS drama Winter Sonata and its impact on Korea’s Hallyu tourism development. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 24 (2/3): 115-126.

Hirata, Yukie. (2008). Touring ‘Dramatic Korea’: Japanese women as viewers of Hanryu dramas and tourists on Hanyru tours. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 143 – 156.. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.(see also, Korean Drama Viewership and Habits)

Lee, Soojin, Scott, David Scott & Kim, Hyounggon. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3): 809-832. 

Lin, Y.S. & Huang, J.Y. (2008). Analyzing the use of TV miniseries for Korea tourism marketing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 24(2/3): 223-227.

Crieghton, Millie. (2009). Japanese surfing the Korean wave: Drama tourism, nationalism, and gender via ethnic eroticisms. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 31: 10-38.  Accessed 7 June 2020 from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Japanese-Surfing-the-Korean-Wave%3A-Drama-Tourism%2C-Creighton/28d1788414368478bdf2d42ba026e08be4acea26

Kim, Hyun Jeong, Chen, Ming-Hsiang, & Su, Hung Jen. (2009).The impact of Korean TV dramas on Taiwanese tourism demand for Korea. Tourism Economics, 15(4): 867-873.

Kim, Sangkyun, Long, & Robinson, Mike. (2009). Small screen, big tourism: the role of popular Korean television dramas in South Korean Tourism. Tourism Geographies, 11(3): 308-333.

Ryan, Chris, Yanning, Zhang, Gu, Huimin & Song, Ling. (2009). Tourism, a classic novel, and television. Journal of Travel Research, 48(1): 14-28.

Kim, Samuel, Lee, Heesung Lee, & Chon, Kye-song. (2010). Segmentation of different types of Hallyu tourists using a multinational model and its marketing implications. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 34(3): 341-363.

Kim, Sangkyun. (2010). Extraordinary experience: Re-enacting and photographing at screen tourism locations. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(1): 59-75.

Lee, SoJung & Bai, Billy. (2010). A qualitative analysis of the impact of popular culture on destination image: A case study of Korean wave from Japanese fans. ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst. Accessed 22 November 2011 from http://bit.ly/1tu46Dk

Oh, Yongsoo. (2010). The changes in the Korean wave and the creation of competitiveness of tourism of Korean wave. Korea Tourism Policy, 42 (Winter). Korea Culture and Policy Researcher.

Treesuwan, Aukjinda. (2010). Factors affecting demand for travel to Korea: a case study of Thai tourists to Korea. Thesis, Chulalongkorn University. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://cuir.car.chula.ac.th/handle/123456789/18028

Choi, Jeong Gil, Tkachenko, Tamara, & Sil, Shomir. (2011). On the destination image of Korea by Russian tourists. Tourism Management, 32: 193-194.

Kim, Sangkyun. (2011). A cross-cultural study of the on-site film-tourism experiences among Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese and Thai visitors to the Daejanggeum theme park, South Korea. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(8): 759-776.

Kim, Sangkyun and O’Connor, Noëlle. (2011). A cross-cultural study of screen-tourists’ profiles. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 3(2):141 – 158.

Lee, SoJung. (2011). The impact of soap opera on destination image: A multivariate repeated measures analysis. ScholarWorks@UMassAmherst. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://bit.ly/2JMME7N

Kim, Sangkyun. (2012). Audience involvement and film tourism experiences: Emotional places, emotional experiences. Tourism Management, 33(2): 387-396.

Kim, Sangkyun. (2012). The relationships of on-site film-tourism experiences, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: The case of Asian audience’s responses to a Korean historical TV drama. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(5): 472-484.

Kim, Sangkyun and Wang, Hua. (2012). From television to the film set:Korean drama Daejanggeum drives Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese and Thai audiences to screen-tourism. International Communication Gazette, 74(5): 423-442.

Kim. Sangkyun and O’Connor, Noëlle. (2012). Film tourism locations and experiences: A popular Korean television drama production perspective. Tourism Review International, 15(3): 243-252.

Kim, Seongseop, Kim, Miju, Agrusa, Jerome,& Lee, Aejoo. (2012). Does a food-themed TV drama affect perceptions of national image and intention to visit a country? An empirical study of Korea TV drama. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(4): 313-326. 

Kim, Andrew Eungi,  Mayasari, Fitria Mayasari, & Oh, Ingyu. (2013). When tourist audiences encounter each other: Diverging learning behaviors of K-pop fans from Japan and Indonesia. Korea Journal, 53(4): 59-82.

Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Agrusa, Jerome, & Chon, Kaye. (2014). The influence of a TV Drama on visitors’ perception: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 31(4): 536-562. 

Rajaguru, Rajesh. (2014). Motion picture-induced visual, vocal and celebrity effects on tourism motivation: Stimulus organism response model. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(4): 375-388.

Yoo, Jae-woong, Samsup Jo, and Jung, Jaemin. (2014). The effects of television viewing, cultural proximity, and ethnocentrism on country image. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal, 42(1):89 – 96. 

Hoa, Pham Hong, Truc, Vo Thi Thanh, & Khuong, Mai Ngoc. (2015). Film-induced tourism – factors affecting Vietnamese intention to visit Korea. Journal of Economics, Business, and Management, 3(5): 565-570. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0154/a665faf109c2a5058bbacb91a477a92cc3fc.pdf

Lee, Won-jun. (2015). The effects of the Korean wave (Hallyu) star and receiver characteristics on T.V. drama satisfaction and intention to revisit. International Journal of u- and e- Service, Science and Technology, 8(11): 347-356. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fde6/38cd0637372022087a7d55ad7942b95f78cb.pdf

Kim, Sangkyun & Nam, Chanwoo. (2016). Hallyu revisited: Challenges and opportunities for the South Korea tourism. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(5): 524-540.

Mah, Han Poh. (2016). Influences of Korean wave on the intention of visiting Korea in Generation Y Malaysia. Thesis, INTI International University. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://eprints.intimal.edu.my/914/

Yen, Chang-Hua & Croy, W. Glen. (2016). Film tourism: celebrity involvement, celebrity worship and destination image. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(10): 1027-1044.

Bae, Eun-song, Chang, Meehyang, Park, Eung-Suk, & Kim, Dae-cheol. (2017). The effect of Hallyu on tourism in Korea. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 3(4). Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.mdpi.com/2199-8531/3/4/22

Choi, H.S. Chris. (2017). Understanding the consumption experience of Chinese tourists: Assessing the effect of audience involvement, flow, and delight on electronic word-of-mouth. Thesis, University of Guelph. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/handle/10214/10252

Trolan, J. (2017). A look into Korean popular culture and its tourism benefits. International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review,4(9): 203-209. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://journalissues.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Trolan.pdf

Botovalkina, A.V., Levina, V.S., & Kudinova, K.M. (2018). Economics of cultural tourism: The case of the Korean wave. In Gaol, Filimonova, and Maslennikov (Eds). Financial and Economic Tools Used in the World Hospitality Industry (pp. 203 – 207). London: Taylor & Francis Group.

Kim, Seongsap & Kim, Sangkyun. (2018). Perceived values of TV drama, audience involvement, and behavioral intention in film tourism. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 35(3): 259-272.

Hasegawa, Eiko. (n.d.). Re-orienting tourism: Japanese tourism in Korea and Asian cultural integration.

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For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 12: KOREAN MUSIC

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 12 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5, Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, and Part 11 of the bibliography.

Buk (Korean drum). Photo credit: HeungSoon, Pixabay.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

Morelli, S. (2001). “Who is a Dancing Hero?”: Rap, Hip-Hop, and Dance in Korean Popular Culture’, pp. 248–57 in T. Mitchell (ed.) Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.

Howard, K. (2002) ‘Exploding Ballads: The Transformation of Korean Pop Music’, pp. 80–95 in T.J. Craig and R. King (eds)  Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Ho, Wai Chung. (2004). A cross-cultural study of preferences for popular music among Hong Kong and Thailand youths. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 7. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://www.immi.se/jicc/index.php/jicc/article/view/125/93

Lee, H.-E. (2005). Othering ourselves: Identity and globalization in Korean popular music, 1992–2002. United States — Iowa, The University of Iowa

Hilts, Janet Flora. (2006). Seo Taiji 1992-2004: South Korean popular music and masculinity. Thesis, York University.

Jung, Eun-Young. (2007). Transnational cultural traffic in northeast Asia: The “presence” of Japan in Korea’s popular music culture. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/8615/1/JUNG.EunYoung.Aug.10.PhD.pdf

Baumann, Max Peter. (2009). Korean Music, Intangible cultural heritage, and global awareness. pp. 64- 83. Accessed 7 April 2020 from

Finchum-Sung, Hilary F. (2009). Image is everything: re-imaging traditional music in the era of the Korean wave. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 31: 39-55. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://www.academia.edu/793782/Image_is_everything_Re-imaging_traditional_music_in_the_era_of_the_Korean_wave

Hwang, Okon. (2009). No “Korean Wave” here: Western Classical music and the changing value system in South Korea. Southeastern Review of Asian Studies, 31: 56-68. Accessed 4 April 2012 from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/No-%22Korean-Wave%22-Here%3A-Western-Classical-Music-and-Hwang/7c64761b4b97f7412448a08af4984e1715667158

Lee, Jung-Yup. (2009). Contesting the digital economy and culture: digital technologies and the transformation of popular music in Korea. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 10(4): 489-506.

Shin, Hyun Joon. 2009. Popular music in East Asia: Transbordering musicians in Japan and Korea searching for “Asia.” Korean Studies, 33:101-123.

Shin, Hyunjoon. 2009. Reconsidering Transnational Cultural Flows of Popular Music in East Asia: Transbordering Musicians in Japan and Korea Searching for “Asia”. Korean Studies, 33(1): 101-123. Accessed 22 August 2012 from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/korean_studies/v033/33.shin.html

Kim, Pil Ho and Hyunjoon Shim. 2010. The birth of “Rok”: Cultural imperialism, nationalism and the glocalization of rock music in South Korea, 1964-1975. East Asia Cultures Critique,18(1): 199-230. 

Bergen, Hannah N. 2011. Understanding Korean society through popular music. Situations, 5 (Winter): 82-90. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://web.yonsei.ac.kr/bk21/2011%EB%85%84Situations%ED%8C%8C%EC%9D%BC/7_Hannah_Bergen_01[1].pdf 

Jung, Eun-Young. 2011. The place of sentimental song in contemporary Korean musical life. Korean Studies, 35: 71-92. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/korean_studies/v035/35.jung.html

Leung, Sarah. 2012. Catching the K-Pop wave: Globality in the production, distribution, and consumption of South Korean popular music. Senior Capstone Projects. Paper 149. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://digitalwindow.vassar.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1151&context=senior_capstone&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fstart%3D400%26q%3DHallyu%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D0%2C41#search=%22Hallyu%22

Jang, Wonho & Kim, Youngsun. (2013). Envisaging the sociocultural dynamics of K-pop: Time/space hybridity, Red Queen’s Race, and cosmopolitan striving. Korea Journal, 53(4): 83-106.

Maliangkay, Roald. (2013). Defining qualities: The socio-political significance of K-pop collections. Korean Histories, 4(1): 3 – 14.

Oh, Ingyu & Hyo-Jung Lee. (2013). K-pop in Korea: How the pop music industry is changing in a post-developmental society. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, (9): 105-124. Accessed 16 June 2016 from https://cross-currents.berkeley.edu/e-journal/issue-9/oh-and-lee

Park, Gil-sung. 2013. Manufacturing creativity: Production, performance, and dissemination of K-pop. Korea Journal, 53(4): 14-33.

de Carvalho Lourenço, Patricia Portugal Marques. (2015). K-pop music digital marketing role in Brazil: Case study: Kim Hyun Joong. Dissertation, ISCEM. Accessed 7 April 2020  from http://comum.rcaap.pt/handle/10400.26/22742

Epstein, Stephen. (2015). Us and them: Korean indie rock in a K-pop world. The Asia-Pacific Journal, 13(48): 1-19. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d3c6/18d277445d2350536cebfd63c337de1fc33d.pdf

Tan, Marcus. (2015). K-contagion: Sound, speed, and space in “Gangnam Style.” The Drama Review, 59(1): 83-96. Accessed 16 June 2016 from http://bit.ly/266cQ0T

Cho, Janice Kim. (2017). “Sure it’s foreign music, but it’s not foreign to me.” Understanding K-pop’s popularity in the U.S. using a Q sort. Thesis, Brigham Young University. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/6612/

Lee, Wonseok. (2018). Diversity of K-pop: A focus on race, language, and musical genre. Thesis, Bowling Green State University. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/pg_10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:bgsu1526067307402648 

Ryu, Jungyop, Capistrano, Erik Paolo, & Lin, Hao-Chieh. (2018). Non-Korean consumers’ preferences on Korean popular music: A two-country study. International Journal of Market Research,62(2): 234-252.

Boman, Björn. (2019). Achievement in the South Korean music industry. International Journal of Music Business Research, 8(2): 6-26. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://bit.ly/2Vdss3U

Gardner, Hyneia. (2019). The impact of African-American musicianship on South Korean popular music: Adoption, hybridization, integration, or other? Thesis, Harvard Extension School. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/42004187

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What We Are Listening To: “Girls” by Wheesung

Wheesung (Choi Wheesung) debuted with boy group A4 in 1999 and as a solo artist with YG Entertainment in 2000. Although his roots are in rock, he is known as a solid R&B artist. Wheesung also uses the stage name Realslow, and named his company such when he started it in 2017. 

“Girls” is from Wheesung’s 2010 CD Vocolate (an almagam of the words “voice” and “chocolate”). This album also highlights the continuing hallmark of Korean music artists working with African-American music producers: Vocolate features collaborations with Rodney “DarkChild” Jerkins and Ne-Yo. I was originally introduced to this song via Jonghyun (he was a fan of and worked with Wheesung). “Girls” made a recent showing on my YouTube random play. Add it to your work-out list to keep you going through those next-to-last rotation squats or that final treadmill level-5 incline run.


Wheesung-Topic. “Girls.” YouTube. 14 July 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gte–D_eLS0 (Accessed 9 Mar 2020).

Is K-pop Fandom Becoming Less Visible and More Fragmented?

Image by Elivelton Nogueira Veto from Pixabay

Online platforms have been a major force propelling the spread of K-pop globally, but are shifts in how they are deployed contributing to a more insular fandom?

When you ask K-pop fans about their journey into K-pop, YouTube usually features prominently. Over the last few years, K-pop fans have been treated to content by companies and artists who recognize the platform as a significant way to get content to fans. However, Jeff Benjamin reports a new trend that sees companies shifting their focus from the easily accessed platforms like Youtube (depending on your country of residence) to more proprietary platforms that promise more direct interaction with K-pop artists and more profit for companies: “The apps will enable K-pop companies to retain all of the ad revenue generated by the content they post. YouTube’s revenue-sharing model only gives 55% to channel owners, which can get more complicated when international viewership is involved.”

While access to such proprietary platforms such as WeVerse and Lysn are free, revenue is generated from fees to access more premium content with artists. Fans could pay $30 for a global fan membership or $20 to view the individual fourth season of BTS’s Bon Voyage, while an individual membership for a subscription to SM Entertainment’s personalized message system “Dear U” costs $3.45 per month for an individual member, and  a subscription for all 14 members of NCT could run about $40 (Benjamin 2020).

What are the implications for K-pop fandom, which for years was sustained by free content on platforms like YouTube? On one hand, this move could limit access for fans who choose to not pay for such services, and they may lose interest in K-pop.  On the other hand, fans have been circulating artist-related material for decades, keeping interest going for K-pop long before the companies started to look to proprietary platforms for revenue.

There would be a particular dilemma for the multi-fan of groups who may end of on several different proprietary platforms. Moreover, it could contribute to the continued balkanization of K-pop fandom, with fans becoming even more territorial and defensive about their groups. Channeling fans to proprietary sites may translate to even less exposure to other K-pop groups as well as the larger K-pop industry.

Such a move could also make fandom less visible. Because of its ease of access, YouTube is not only a platform for artist content, but for fan content as well.   This put fan activity on global display. If interaction between artists and fans move to more proprietary platforms, such fan activity becomes less visible. Which stricter rules on sharing, it could also have a negative impact on the visibility of fan-artist interaction, which began on very visible social media platforms in the first place.


Jeff Benjamin. “Why K-pop Content Creators are Leaving YouTube and V Live.” Billboard. 16 Mar 2020. https://www.billboard.com/articles/deep-dive/9332981/why-k-pop-content-creators-are-leaving-youtube-and-v-live (18 Mar 2020).

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Mini Data Note: Female American Fans, K-pop Girl Groups and a Critique of Empowerment

Image by Pexels from Pixabay

Survey responses suggest that American female fans of K-pop girl groups simultaneously critique Korean society and music industry and recognize the impact of their position as foreign fans on their perceptions of representations of empowerment in K-pop.  These are findings from the U Go Girl: The K-pop Girl Group Fan Study and are based on 129 responses from female fans who identified their country of residency as the United States.

Transcultural fandom, when fans admire something outside of their culture, often revolves around nationalism. Koichi Iwabuchi talks about “brand nationalism,” or a “nationalist strategy of disseminating culture for national interests” (90). However, brand nationalism focuses on the interests of the country creating the culture rather than how fans outside of the country make sense of it. The field of fan studies tends to focus on the way fans admire culture, but what about when they critique it? When asked about their attitudes towards concepts/images of K-pop girl groups in relation to empowerment and agency for women, some American female fans of K-pop girl groups articulate a critique of gender dynamics in Korean society, while others recognize the impact of their American identity on their perspectives of female empowerment in Korea.  Both show how an American perspective can influences the discourses around K-pop.

Critique of Korea

Several respondents criticize Korean culture and society for a lack of representation of empowerment by K-pop girl groups. One respondent notes: “I think Korea has a huge issue with misogyny that is reflected in K-pop and that women are forced to be boxed in to one ‘type’ or another in order to appeal to men and to be socially acceptable to both men and women.” Another respondent says: “A lot of times they are held back due to Korea still holding sexist attitudes so I think there is more potential but it will all slowly become better.” How much do the respondents know about the history of Korean culture? Do they form such opinions based on Western media, which has been known to skew representations of foreign culture? Is “Korea’s issue with misogyny” or its “sexist attitudes” different than those within the United States?

Recognition of American Subjectivity

At the same time, other respondents recognize their perspective as American fans of a foreign popular culture. One respondent notes: “We have to remember as foreign fans, the concepts, images and sonic soundscapes that we hear/see in K-pop are coming from a unique place and culture. That means we are not always going to immediately understand it. . . . . We all have different experiences and thus different frameworks. Foreign Kpop fans need to remember this.” Another respondent notes: “This is a tricky question, because I’m a white American woman speaking on gender politics in Korea, a country I have no relation to and have never lived in. . . . At the end of the day, I’m not a defining voice on the subject, all I am is someone trying to find grey area in music and entertainment from a country that isn’t my own. I still am friends with quite a few Korean-Americans so I hear what they think on certain concepts, and that contributes a lot to my hesitancy to place my Western ideals on another country dismissively.” These fans recognize that their perceptions of Korean culture are filtered through their experiences as fans outside of the country. What kind of knowledge would a fan have to gain to make a valid critique of representations of empowerment? Do their perspectives not count because they are foreign fans? Do ideas about empowerment change as they cross national boundaries?

Other Observations

Such divergent responses suggest that perceptions by American fans may be influenced by American culture in general.  The impact of nationalism has been explored in fan studies.  Kyong Yoon’s study of K-pop fans in Vancouver included Canadians of East Asian descent, white Canadians and one Canadian of mixed race. Yoon noted: “Some fans of Asian descent engaged with K-pop in relation to their Asian Canadian subject positions, while White Canadian fans emphasized their individual and alternative cultural tastes that do not belong to mainstream culture” (185). Yoon suggests that a Canadian context informs the way these fans interact with K-pop.

The United States represents a unique context informed by a history of the interplay among gender, ethnicity and nationality. As a nation developed by a variety of immigrant groups and a major site for women’s rights, the United States also elides those very varied experiences in favor of one dominant narrative on empowerment, currently often represented as fierce, outspoken and brash. Images and concepts not in keeping with this narrative might be construed as not empowering. This suggests that a distinct and particular American cultural lens can have an impact on the way fans read empowerment in Korean girl groups.


Iwabuchi, Koichi.”Undoing Inter‐national Fandom in the Age of Brand Nationalism’. Mechademia 5 (2010): . 87‐96.

Yoon, Kyong. “Transnational Fandom in the Making: K-pop Fans in Vancouver.” the International Communication Gazette vol 81, no. 2 (2018): 176-192. DOI: 10.1177/1748048518802964.

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