Let KPK Introduce You To…Black Greek Fraternity/Sorority Stepping

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Choreography and costuming for: “Maximum”

Group: TVXQ

Album: Keep Your Head Down

Album Release Date: January 5, 2011

Press Play to watch a live performance of “Maximum” by TVXQ.

“Maximum” choreography and concepts echo the traditional stepping performances of …)

Fraternity: Alpha Phi Alpha (AΦA) (the oldest African-American/Black Greek Letter Organization).

Founded: December 4, 1906 at Cornell University

AΦA’s signature stepping choreography: “Train,’” including synchronized hand or arm movements evocative of ancient Egyptian culture.

AΦA’s common performance elements, particularly for neophyte (new member) debuts: militarized or stealth-like costuming and/or masks/face coverings and hoods.*

Press Play to watch AΦA members perform a “train” step sequence (timestamp 2:51).

Press Play to watch AΦA neophytes (new members) debut on their campus.

ELEMENTS OF NOTE:

Introduction of individual members with ultimate group performance

  • Performer entrance is intense with high drama
  • All-male performers
  • Presentation points are to manifest gravity and high levels of athleticism, endurance, and self-confidence
  • Train step (footwork)
  • Synchronized and staggered arm movements
  • Hoods and covered faces, use of black military-like/stealth-like costuming
  • Songs or chants center on challenging others and overcoming obstacles, male posturing is performed (see English interpretation of “Maximum” lyrics)
  • Call-and-response performance

TRADE OFFS:

  • AΦA’s Egyptian hand formations vs. TVXQ’s mostly neutral hands or closed fists (TVXQ’s choreography includes general index-finger pointing throughout and a quick Kung Fu salute at 4:21)
  • AΦA’s call-and-response limited to fraternity members vs. TVXQ’s call-and-response with fans (who are not TVXQ group members)
  • AΦA’s militarized costuming evokes Black Panther significance in African-American culture vs. TVXQ’s stealth costuming evokes history of martial arts reconnaissance and stealth in Asian culture.

*KPK recognizes that masks are also used in Kpop talent training to disguise the identity of company trainees (those who are “pre-debut”). We also note that masks are worn by Black Greek neophytes to protect their identity until they are finally revealed at their probate (debut) show.

Learn more about Alpha Phi Alpha.

What is stepping?

See also: SHINee echoing Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated; Rain/Bi echoing Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity.

Happy Watching!

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For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 8: KOREAN DRAMA VIEWERSHIP and HABITS

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 8 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, and Part 7 of the bibliography.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu

NOTE:  In order to make it easier to locate authors (and where possible), I’ve modified these APA Style citations by adding full author names where possible.

Lee Minu and Chong Heup Cho. (1990/2003). Women watching together: An ethnographic study of Korean soap opera fans in the United States. In Gail Dines and Jean M. Humez (eds.) Gender, race  and class in media. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. 

Kim, Youna. (2002). Women, television and everyday life: Korean women’s reflexive experience of television mediated by generation and class. Thesis, University of London.

Park, Jung-sun. (2004). Korean American Youths’ Consumption of Korean and Japanese TV Dramas and Its Implications. In Koichi Iwabuchi (Ed.) Feeling Asian Modernities: Transnational Consumption of Japanese TV Dramas.  Pp. 275-300. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Park, Sora. (2004). China’s Consumption of Korean Television Dramas: An Empirical Test of the “Cultural Discount” Concept’, Korea Journal 44: 265–90.

Han, Kyung-Koo. (2006). From housewives to butterflies: Hallyu and the fantastic journey to Korea. Korea Journal, 46(2): 269-274.

Kwon, Dong Hwan. (2006). Is it too early to talk about “Hallyu” in the Phillipines? Koreanovela and its reception among Filipino audience. Cultural Space and Public Sphere in Asia

Shim D. (2006). Korean women television viewers in Singapore. Cultural Space and Public Sphere in Asia. 

Kim, Dae Do and Su Na Mi. (2007). Consuming Korean TV Dramas in China: Analysis of a new cultural flow, “Hanryu”, in the Asian context. pp. 233-261.  

Lin, Angel and Avin Tong.  (2007). Crossing boundaries: male consumption of Korean TV dramas and negotiation of gender relations in modern day Hong Kong. Journal of Gender Studies, 16(3): 217-232.

Shim, D. (2007). Korean wave and Korean women television viewers in Singapore. Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 13(2): 63-82.

Hirata, Yukie. (2008). Touring ‘Dramatic Korea’: Japanese women as viewers of Hanryu dramas and tourists on Hanyru tours. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 143 – 156.. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press. (see also, Tourism)

La Torre, Nichole S. (2008). Hallyu: Discourses of Korean drama viewership in China. Thesis. Accessed 7 December 2016 from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/20412/M.A.CB5.H3_3489_r.pdf?sequence=2

Kim, Do Hyun et al. (2009). Television drama, narrative engagement and audience buying behavior: The Effects of Winter Sonata in Japan.The International Communication Gazette, 71(7): 1-17. Accessed 7 December 2016 from http://utminers.utep.edu/asinghal/Articles%20and%20Chapters/Kim-Singhal-et-al-2009-Winter-Sonata-0purchasing-behavior-Gazette-1.pdf 

Lee, Soobum and Hyejung Ju. (2010). Korean television dramas in Japan: Imagining “East Asianness” and consuming “nostalgia.” Asian Women, 26(2): 77-105. 

Chan, Brenda. (2011). Of prince charming and male chauvinist pigs: Singaporean female viewers and the dream-world of Korean television dramas. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 14(3): 291-305.doi: 10.1177/1367877910391868

Hung Jen Su, Yu-An Huang, Glen Brodowsky & Hyun Jeong Kim. (2011.) The impact of product placement on TV-induced tourism: Korean TV dramas and Taiwanese viewers. Tourism Management, 32(4): 805-814.

Hien, Phan Thi Thu. (2012). Feminitive attraction of Hallyu (Korean Wave) in Southeast Asia. University of Social Sciences. Accessed 7 December 2016 from http://en.hcmussh.edu.vn/3cms/?cmd=130&art=1344907879368&cat=1329473737740

Lee, Sangjoon. (2012). From diaspora to Drama Fever: Consuming Korean dramas in North America. Presented at the Nam Center for Korean Studies’ Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media Symposium. (Watch video of this presentation)

Chuang, Lisa M. & Hye Eun Lee. (2013). Korean wave: enjoyment factors of Korean dramas in the U.S. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(5): 594-604.

Kuotsu, Neikolie. (2013). Architectures of pirate film cultures: encounters with the Korean wave in “Northeast” India. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 14(4): 579-599.

Yoo, Jae-woong, Samsup Jo, and Jaemin Jung. (2014). The effects of television viewing, cultural proximity, and ethnocentrism on country image. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal, 42(1):89 – 96. 

Happy Reading!

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Not the Only One: Multi-Fandoms and K-pop

 

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

Can’t decide which K-pop group or artist is your favorite? You are not alone! Global fans of K-pop tend to support several groups and artists at the same time, while their Korean counterparts tend to support only one group or artist. But why? And which groups tend to be in a global fan’s multi-fandom? This study seeks to answer these questions in survey that uses open-ended and multiple-choice questions. Take the survey and tell your friends!

Link: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/kpopmultifandom

REVISED Last Fans Standing: Veteran Fans of K-pop

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

One of the things that happens when conducting qualitative surveys is that they can raise more questions than they answer. This is what happened with the preliminary data from Last Fans Standing: Longtime and Adult Fans of Korean Popular Music (K-pop). Response rates were unusually low, which was unusual given the rising number of fans who have been fans for more than five years. I speculated that respondents may think that only adult fans who had also been fans for five years or more could take the survey. So, I revised the survey to focus solely on veteran fans of K-pop, individuals who had been fans for five years or more. This means all you fans of ZE:A, CN Blue, SISTAR, Infinite, Miss A, Teen Top, Nine Muses, T-ara, f(x), BEAST/Highlight, SHINee, UKISS, 2PM, IU, Wonder Girls, KARA, FT. Island, Girls’ Generation, SS501, Super Junior, BoA, Dynamic Duo, Epik High, Lee Hyori, Kangta, Se7en, TVXQ, K. Will, Big Bang, 2NE1, 4Minute, Fly to the Sky, g.o.d, H.O.T, Jinusean, S.E.S, Sechs Kies, Shinhwa, and any other group that debuted more than 5 years ago need to get on it!

The revised survey can be found here: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/vetfans

For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 7: IDENTITY & NATIONALISM

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 7 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5  and Part 6 of the bibliography.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu

NOTE:  In order to make it easier to locate authors (and where possible), I’ve modified these APA Style citations by adding full author names where possible.

Lee,  D.  Y.  (2004,  March).  A  typology  of  East  Asian  popular  culture  and  Korea’s nationalism.  The  paper  presented  in  the Asian  Culture  Symposium.  Seoul:  Korea. 

Lee, Hee-Eun. (2005). Othering ourselves: identity and globalization in Korean popular music, 1992-2002. Thesis, University of Iowa.

James, David E., Marsha Kinder, Stanley Rosen, Eunsun Cho. (2006). Transnational modernity, national identity, and South Korea melodrama (1945-1960s). Thesis, University of Southern California. Accessed 7 December 2016 from http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/assetserver/controller/item/etd-Cho-20061114.pdf 

HyeJung, J. (2007). The nature of nationalism in the “Korean Wave”: A framing analysis of news coverage about Korean pop culture. Presented at the 93rd National Communication Association Conference. Accessed 7 December 2016 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/8/7/9/2/pages187925/p187925-1.php

Siriyuvasak, Ubonrat & Hyunjoon Shin. (2007). Asianizing Kpop: production, consumption and identification patterns among Thai youth. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8(1): 109-136 

Cayla, Julien and Giana M. Eckhardt. (2008). Asian brands and the shaping of a transnational imagined community. Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (2): 216 – 230. Accessed 7 December 2016 from http://www.juliencayla.com/JCR%20final.pdf

Sung, Sang Yeon. (2008). Globalization and the regional flow of popular music: the role of the Korean wave (Hanliu) in the construction of Taiwanese identities and Asian values. Thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington. 

Yang, Fang-chih Irene. (2008). Rap(p)ing Korean Wave: National identity in question. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 191- X. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.

Blitz, Brian. (2009). Blood, birth, imagination: ethnic nationalism and South Korean popular culture. Thesis, Bowling Green State University. Accessed 7 December 2016 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/bgsu1245256858/inline

Cho, Young Chul. (2009). Security, nationalism and popular culture: Screening South Korea’s uneasy identity in the early 2000s. East Asia, 26(3): 227-246.

Crieghton, Millie. (2009). Japanese surfing the Korean wave: Drama tourism, nationalism, and gender via ethnic eroticisms. Southeast Review of Asian Studies, 31: 10-38. Accessed 2 November 2011 from http://www.uky.edu/Centers/Asia/SECAAS/Seras/2009/SERAS_2009.pdf#page=36 

Shin, Hyunjoon. (2009). Reconsidering Transnational Cultural Flows of Popular Music in East Asia: Transbordering Musicians in Japan and Korea Searching for “Asia.” Korean Studies, 33(1): 101-123. 

Kim, Pil Ho and Hyunjoon Shim. (2010). The birth of “Rok”: Cultural imperialism, nationalism and the glocalization of rock music in South Korea, 1964-1975. East Asia Cultures Critique,18(1): 199-230. 

Cho, Younghan. (2011). Desperately seeking East Asia amidst the popularity of South Korean pop culture in Asia. Cultural Studies, 25(3): 383-404. doi: 10.1080/09502386.2010.545424 

Joo, Jeongsuk. (2011). Transnationalism of Korean popular culture and the rise of “pop nationalism” in Korea. The Journal of Popular Culture, 44(3): 489-504. 

Kim, Gwangseok. (2011). Practicing nationalism: culture, technology and national identity in contemporary Korea. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin. Accessed 22 November 2011 from http://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2011-08-4267/KIM-THESIS.pdf?sequence=1

Kim, Youna. (2011). Diasporic nationalism and the media. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 14(2): 133-151.

Sutton, R. Anderson. (2011). “Fusion” and questions of Korean cultural identity in music. Korean Studies, 35: 4-24. 

Sung, Sang-Yeon Loise. (2012). The role of Hallyu in the construction of East Asian regional identity in Vienna. European Journal of East Asian Studies, 11(1): 155-171.

Ho, Swee-Lin. (2012). Fuel for South Korea’s “Global Dreams Factory”: The desires of parents whose children dream of becoming K-pop stars. Korea Observer, 43(3): 471-502.

Yoo, Jae-woong, Samsup Jo, and Jaemin Jung. (2014). The effects of television viewing, cultural proximity, and ethnocentrism on country image. Social Behavior & Personality: an international journal, 42(1):89 – 96. 

Han, Gil-soo. (2015). K-pop nationalism: Celebrities and acting blackface in the Korean media. Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 29(1): 2-16.

Happy Reading!

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Let KPK Introduce You To…Aaliyah

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Song: “Play Me (소나타)

Artist: Taemin

Album: Ace

Album Release Date: August 18, 2014

Press Play to Hear “Play Me (소나타)” by Taemin.

“Play Me (소나타)” echoes…

Song: “Rock the Boat”

Artist: Aaliyah

Album: Aaliyah

Album Release Date: July 7, 2001

Press Play to hear “Rock the Boat” by Aaliyah.

ELEMENTS OF NOTE:

  • Similar use of synthesizers to bring out “floating” feeling.
  • Breathy vocals
  • Artists background vocals augmented with lower melody/harmony registers. (“ 공기가 차네요 커튼을 쳐봐요 저 달이 봐요 어서 내 그림자를 입어요” (Taemin); “Baby, I love your stroke” (Aaliyah)
  • Similar tempo and syncopation
  • Songs have definitive end (no fade out).

TRADE OFFS:

  • Aaliyah’s tempo carried by Latin percussive instruments (e.g, conga drums), beats, and rhythms vs. Taemin’s R&B -based human sounds (e.g. “finger-snapping”) bass drum and beats.
  • Aaliyah’s beats filled out with hi-hats vs. Taemin’s fill-outs with guitar.
  • Aaliyah’s one-note chorus line vs. Taemin’s varied chorus

Learn more about Aaliyah.

Happy Listening!

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Now at KPK: A Digital Library!

Now at KPK: A Digital Library!

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

A Screen Capture of the Otlet's Shelf Tumblr Theme.
A Screen Capture of the Otlet’s Shelf Tumblr Theme.

Over at my Academia.edu profile, my analytics place my Hallyu Bibliography posts in my top ten. Since the bibliography posts are helpful to KPK readers, I want to further assist Hallyu scholars and those working in the Digital Humanities (DH) field. To that end, I’ve been working on a project to make even more items (books, mainly) discoverable. As a result, I’m happy to present KPK’s Digital Library, housed in Tumblr using a cool theme called Otlet’s Shelf.

Otlet’s Shelf is a theme that displays books in Tumblr, and it’s also a bookmarklet that allows me to mine Amazon.com for books and insert them into KPK’s Tumblr page. The application pulls book abstract information from Amazon and allows me to add keywords as needed. The keywords help users locate books that cover similar topics in the KPK Digital Library.  The theme displays most recent entries first – when you click the “Next” button, you are accessing older entries. By the way, the first book that had the honor of inclusion is Hallyu: Influence of Korean Popular Culture in Asia and Beyond by Do Kyun Kim.

The first KPK Digital Library Entry
The first KPK Digital Library Entry!

In accordance with KPK’s mission, the KPK Digital Library includes monographs that discuss Hallyu from all of its interdisciplinary aspects – from music and media studies to politics, sociology, and of course fandom research. Because we are also interested in the development of the DH field,  books covering DH are also included. At press time, there are 108 books in the KPK Digital Library, and more will be added as items are published.

Keep in mind that the KPK Digital Library is a discovery resource, not an access portal. Your ability to access items will depend on several factors, including your proximity to and ability to use your local public, academic, or special libraries and their services (don’t forget the glory that is Interlibrary Loan). Additionally, some items may be available electronically via databases or downloadable for use in e-readers. If you want to find out if an item is available for checkout within a certain mile radius, try out WorldCat or WorldCat Mobile (for Android and iPhone)!

To keep up with what’s being added to the KPK Digital Library, login to your Tumblr account and add us. When a new book is uploaded, you’ll see the book cover and its abstract appear in your dashboard. You can also stop by the KPK website anytime and click on the “Resources” link at the top of the page to see the latest activity. And of course, you can always just go directly to our Tumblr page and click on any book to get information.

Consider using the KPK Digital Library as a complement to the Hallyu Bibliography posts. Together, the bibliography and the library are robust tools designed to help scholars develop and expand the Korean Studies, Hallyu Studies, and DH fields. 

Please send your feedback to me – I hope you find the KPK Digital Library “pop”-sitively useful.

Happy Reading!

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Data Drop: Preliminary Results for Study on Longtime and Adult K-pop Fans

Image: Pixabay
Image: Pixabay

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD
Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

Preliminary results from an academic study on individuals who have been fans of K-pop five years or longer reveals the appeal of both new and veteran groups and a focus on vocals and choreography. 192 responses collected between September 9, 2016 and November 7, 2016 are in response to the  query, “Please list your bias (i.e. favorite) K-pop groups and solo artists and briefly explain why you like them.” The entire dataset can be accessed here.

Continue reading “Data Drop: Preliminary Results for Study on Longtime and Adult K-pop Fans”

Sechs Kies: Com’Back

Sechs Kies
Sechs Kies

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD
Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

Sechs Kies is one of most popular 1st-generation male K-pop “idol” groups and contemporaries of H.O.T.Sechs Kies, means “six pebbles” in German. Original group members include leader Eun Ji Won, Lee Jae Jin, Kim Jae Duk, Kang Sung Hoon and maknae Jang Su Won.  Former group members include Ko Ji Yong. The group is also one of a handful of 1st-generation “idol” groups to make a comeback after a multi-year hiatus, signing with Big Three Korean agency YG Entertainment in 2016. The group debuted on April 15, 1997 with DSP Entertainment. Attesting to the continued popularity of the group, “Hours before the 5 p.m. concert, Sechs Kies’ fans — many of whom were in their 30s and older and some accompanied by their children — swarmed Olympic Park to see their favorites stars of their youth” (Korea Herald). Before 2016, the fandom was called Dear SechsKies Friend. After 2016, the fandom is referred to as YellowKies. 

Website:  http://www.ygfamily.com/artist/Main.asp?LANGDIV=K&ATYPE=2&ARTIDX=71

LABEL MATES

Big Bang | Psy | Mobb | Winner | IKON | Blackpink  Epik High | Akdong Musician | Lee Hi | Jinusean |

COLLABORATIONS

None

RELEVANT SOURCES

Image: 1

Articles

“Sechs Kies Calls Comeback Concert It’s ‘Dream Stage.” The Korea Herald. 12 Sept 2016, http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20160912000692 (3 Jan 2017).

45RPM: Boom Box

45RPM
45RPM

One of the first rap groups in South Korea, 45RPM recall the music landscape in the late 1990s: “‘Back then, there was nothing like what we call pure rap. You know how they have some sort of bridge, and then a little rap here and there. But when I started listening to LPs, I liked that with just rap, pure rap, I can express myself and thoroughly speak my mind,’ J-Kwondo said” (The Korea Herald).  Known for being staples in underground Korean hip-hop, they have collaborated with more mainstream artists, including K.Will (KpopStarz).

BASICS

Name: 45RPM, 45 revolutions per minute, the speed of vinyl music

MembersJ-Kwondo (Park Jae Jin), Smash (Lee Hyun Bae)

Debut: 1999

LabelYG Entertainment (2005 – ?)

FandomSa-Sip-Oh (45 in Korean)

Website: N/A

LABEL MATES

N/A

COLLABORATIONS

  1. 45RPM X DJ Doc. 리기동 + STREET LIFE Performance | 2. 45RPM X DJ Soulscape: 붐박스 [Boom Box] MV | 3. 45RPM X Lee Seung Hwan: This Is Love MV | 4. 45RPM X LOCO: Performance on Mnet K-pop

RELEVANT SOURCES

Image: 1

“45RPM Still Here and Not Going Anywhere.” The Korea Herald. 22 Dec 2013. http://www.koreaherald.com/common_prog/newsprint.php?ud=20131222000132&dt=2, (3 Jan 2017).  
Jackie Chung. “Group 45RPM Releases New Song Featuring K.Will.” 15 May 2015. http://www.kpopstarz.com/articles/201427/20150515/hip-hop-45rpm-releases-new-song-love-affair-with-k-wills-featuring.htm, (3 Jan 2017).