What We Are Listening To: “Girls” by Wheesung

Wheesung (Choi Wheesung) debuted with boy group A4 in 1999 and as a solo artist with YG Entertainment in 2000. Although his roots are in rock, he is known as a solid R&B artist. Wheesung also uses the stage name Realslow, and named his company such when he started it in 2017. 

“Girls” is from Wheesung’s 2010 CD Vocolate (an almagam of the words “voice” and “chocolate”). This album also highlights the continuing hallmark of Korean music artists working with African-American music producers: Vocolate features collaborations with Rodney “DarkChild” Jerkins and Ne-Yo. I was originally introduced to this song via Jonghyun (he was a fan of and worked with Wheesung). “Girls” made a recent showing on my YouTube random play. Add it to your work-out list to keep you going through those next-to-last rotation squats or that final treadmill level-5 incline run.

Source

Wheesung-Topic. “Girls.” YouTube. 14 July 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gte–D_eLS0 (Accessed 9 Mar 2020).

Let KPK Introduce You To…D’Angelo

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Song: “Aurora”

Artist: Jonghyun (Kim Jonghyun)

Album: 좋아 (She Is)

Album Release Date: May 24, 2016

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R3WjWXDBlq8

Caption: Press Play to Hear “Aurora” by Jonghyun.

“Aurora” echoes…

Song: “Lady”

Artist: D’Angelo

Album: Brown Sugar

Album Release Date: July 4, 1995

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmdUMwlrezs

Caption: Press Play to hear “Lady” by D’Angelo.

ELEMENTS OF NOTE:

  • Clapping and jazz percussion
  • Syncopated lyrics
  • Lower vocal registers for stanza performance, falsetto for ad-libs and chorus
  • Use of two- or three-part harmony
  • Background vocals feature artist
  • Both songs discuss willingness and confidence of being the best choice for the love interest and in turn, that the love interest represents his ideal (see English interpretation of “Aurora” lyrics)

TRADE OFFS:

  • D’Angelo’s strong bass-line vs. Jonghyun’s use of bass drum and modulated guitars and bass.
  • D’Angelo’s use of a catch-line (“I can tell they’re lookin’ at us”) to interrupt the traditional song composition vs. Jonghyun’s traditional lyric-chorus-lyric-chorus-bridge-chorus composition
  • D’Angelo’s piano chords vs. Jonghyun’s synthesizers

Learn more about D’Angelo.

See also: Dwele, Bilal, Ledisi

Happy Listening!

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What We Are Listening To: “Rising Sun” by TVXQ!

 

chris-slupski-eKYgEj1U97k-unsplash
Photo by Chris Slupski on Unsplash

TVXQ! (also billed as Dong Bang Shin Ki/DBSK in Korean and Tohoshinki in Japanese) was a five member group from 2004 to 2010. In 2011, the group continued with two members (Jung Yunho – U-Know, and Shim Changmin – MAX). The group is known for their harmonies and sensual dance moves, and “Rising Sun” choreography is one of the group’s more dynamic musical and visual accomplishments. 

“Rising Sun” is from the group’s second Korean studio album and was also featured in an American film. In a review of the album, Pop Reviews Now asserts that “Rising Sun” “is one of DBSK’s most technically-challenging and most remembered songs and for good reason.” Every member’s vocal or rap ability is highlighted, with Changmin’s signature range/ note-holding on display. As a note to the longevity and importance of this song, the two-member group continues to perform it live.

View the visuals and hear the vocals of five-member TVXQ’s “Rising Sun”:

 

And two-member performance, as well:

Sources

DBSK – “Rising Sun.” Pop Reviews Now. 28 Jul 2014. http://popreviewsnow.blogspot.com/2014/07/dbsk-rising-sun.html (25 Feb 2020).

Kpopcorner2. “DBSK [Mirotic Concert] – Rising Sun.” YouTube. 10 Feb. 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bLxrl5NRfM (25 Feb 2020).

laura bustamante. “TVXQ! – Rising Sun – Special Live Tour T1STORY in Seoul.” YouTube. 15 Jun 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HEQ7ICbYhYg (25 Feb 2020).

Let KPK Introduce You To…The Use of (Gospel) Choirs

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

The use or application of the (gospel) choir aestethic or sound is a staple in popular Western music, and the artists who have used the imagery or sound go from rock  and pop to rapIn an essay discussing how the African-American creative and cultural tradition of gospel music is preserved or transformed as it moves around the globe, Burnim links the original context of gospel music and its role in the African-American community to its unexpected introduction into American mainstream music (solidified by creative and consumer success markers):

As a genre that came to most strongly define the worship of the vast majority of African Americans regardless of denomination, gospel remained largely in the domain of African American congregants — that is, church folk — until the late 1960’s, when Edwin Hawkins released Let Us Go into The House of the Lord, with its ever-popular single “O Happy Day” unexpectedly hitting the radio airways, claiming unparalleled chart success and subsequent sales in excess of one million copies… (2016, 471)

While gospel music is primarily the vehicle by which African-Americans practiced aspects of their religion, it is also a form of music that has close ties to the continent and cultures of Africa. With those multitudes of cultures come expanded channels of creativity, and you can hear those elements in gospel music, including:

  • call and response
  • syncopation
  • cross-rhythms
  • improvisation (Rucker-Hillsman, 2014)

Noting links to commercial success and the musicality imbued in the gospel choir,  international artists have also incorporated the sound into their music.

Let’s take a look at the gospel choir’s entry into K-pop:

Artist: Jonghyun

Press Play to Hear “할렐루야 ” (Hallelujah)” from Jonghyun’s album Base (released January  12, 2015).

In a 2015 interview, Jonghyun noted that he did not originally intend to have a choir but that his interest in gospel music spurred him to update the arrangement. 

Jonghyun documents choir members recording the background vocals for “Hallelujah.”

Works Cited

Burnim, M. (2016). Tropes of continuity and disjuncture in the globalization of gospel music. In S.A. Riley & J.M. Dueck (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Music and World Christianities. Oxford University Press (pp. 469-488).

Rucker-Hillsman, J. (2014). Gospel music: An African-American art form. Victoria, BC, Canada: Freisen Press.

 

Let KPK Introduce You To… Rob Base and Vanity 6 (A Mash-Up)

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

A recent Rolling Stone article discusses the major thread of American R&B in Kpop music. A producer notes the attraction towards the genre, sharing, “Korean pop music likes differentiation and changes,..the average American song is four melodies, maybe five. The average K-pop song is eight to 10. They are also very heavy in the harmonies. The one-loop beat doesn’t work over there…” (Leight, 2018)

Well – we stan complexity.

In this edition of “Let Us Introduce You To…” we showcase a song that highlights how that nostalgic R&B feel is built in Kpop by using numerous beats, harmonies, and even rap cadence to hook listeners by producing a new sound that simultaneously feels familiar. 

Artist: SHINee

Press Play to Hear “Lock You Down” from SHINee’s album The Story of Light EP 3 (released June 25, 2018).

Lock You Down’s beats echo…

Artist: Vanity 6

Press Play to Hear “Nasty Girl” from Vanity 6’s album Vanity 6 (released August 11, 1982).

Learn more about Vanity 6 – a girl group that was produced by Prince.

SHINee Minho and SHINee Key’s rapping cadence echoes…

Artist: Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock

Press Play to Hear “It Takes Two” from Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock’s album It Takes Two (released August 9, 1988).

Learn more about Rob Base and DJ E-Z Rock, and read about how this song became a classic!

Happy Listening!

Works Cited

Leight, E. (2018, May 2). How American R&B songwriters found a new home in K-pop. Rolling Stone. Retrieved from https://www.rollingstone.com/music/music-news/how-american-rb-songwriters-found-a-new-home-in-k-pop-627643/ 

 

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For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 10: LANGUAGE

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 10 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, and Part 9 of the bibliography.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu

NOTE:  In order to make it easier to locate authors (and where possible), I’ve modified these APA Style citations by adding full author names where possible.

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2004). Linguistic hybridization in K-pop: discourse of self-assertion and resistance. World Englishes, 23(3): 429-450. doi: 10.1111/j.0883-2919.2004.00367.x

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2006). Linguistic Hybridization in K-pop, In Kingsley Bolton and Braj B. Kachru (eds.), Critical Concepts in Linguistics: World Englishes. Pp.299-326. London & New York: Routledge. 6 volume set. vol. 4.

You, Byeong Keun. (2005). Children negotiating Korean American ethnic identity through their heritage language. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(3): 711-721. doi: 10.1080/15235882.2005.10162860

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2007). “Im the illest fucka”: An Analysis of African American English in South Korean Hip Hop. English Today: The International Review of the English Language 23(2): 54-60.

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2007). Language and Identity: Entertainers in South Korean Pop Culture, In Miguel Mantero (ed.), Identity and Second Language Learning. pp. 283-303. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Park, Joseph Sung Yul. (2009). Regimenting languages on Korean television: subtitles and institutional authority. Text & Talk, 29(5): 547-570.

Hu, Brian. (2010). Korean TV Serials in the English-Language Diaspora: Translating Difference Online and Making It Racial. The Velvet Light Trap, 66 (Fall): 36 -49.

Lee, Jamie Shinhee. (2010). Glocalizing Keepin’ it real: South Korean hip hop playas. In M. Terkourafi (Ed.) Languages of Global Hip-Hop. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 139 – 161.

Rembert-Lang, LaToya D. (2010-2011). Reinforcing the power of Babel: The impact of copyright law on fansubbing. Intellectual Property Brief, 2(2): 21-33. 

Lee, J.S. (2011). Globalization of African American vernacular English in popular culture Blinglish in Korean hip hop. English World-Wide, 32(1): 1-23.

Dwiyota, Sylvia. (2018). The use of code mixing in Tweets by Kpop fans in Twitter. Lingua Litera, 3(1). Retrieved from http://116.251.210.75/index.php/stba1/article/view/9

Touhami, Batoul & Al-Abed Al Haq, Fawwaz. (2017). The influence of the Korean wave on the language of international fans: Case study of Algerian fans. Sino-US English Teaching, 14(10): 598-626.

Cheon, Sang Yee. Teaching the language and culture of Korean through film and tv drama in an American university setting. Accessed from http://hawaii.edu/korea/pages/announce/inha07/papers/cheon.pdf

King, Ross. Globalization and the future of the Korean language. Accessed from http://www.academia.edu/3358628/Globalization_and_the_future_of_the_Korean_language_some_preliminary_thoughts

Jin, Dal Yong & Woongjae Ryoo. (2014). Critical interpretation of hybrid K-pop: The global-local paradigm of English-mixing in lyrics. Popular Music & Society, 37(2): 113-131.

Shin, Seong-Chu. (n.d.) Students’ motivation, learning experiences, and learning style preferences: A survey on Australian college students of Korean. Accessed from http://rp-www.arts.usyd.edu.au/korean/downloads/KSAA2009/Global_Korea_Proceedings_401-417_Shin.pdf

Happy Reading!

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For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 11: WINTER SONATA

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 11 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, and Part 10 of the bibliography.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu

NOTE:  In order to make it easier to locate authors (and where possible), I’ve modified these APA Style citations by adding full author names where possible.

Kaori, H. (2005).  Assessing the popularity of Winter Sonata. How do women’s emotions affect the public sphere in Japan. Media Consumption and the Korean Wave in East Asia

Lee, Sue Kyung. (2005). The Korean wave in Japan: Winter sonata and its implications through audience perceptions. Thesis, University of Texas, Austin.

Kim, D. (2006). Transcending Borders: Korean Soap Opera, Winter Sonata, Effects on Japanese Middle-Aged Women. Paper presented to the 56th annual convention of the International Communication Association, Dresden, Germany, June.

Han, Min Hwa et al. (2007). Forced invisibility to negotiating visibility: Winter Sonata, the Hanyru phenomenon and Zainichi Koreans in Japan. Keio Communication Review. 29: 155-174. Accessed from http://www.mediacom.keio.ac.jp/publication/pdf2007/pdf/Min%20Wha%20HAN.pdf

Hanaki, T., A. Singhal, M. Han, D.-K. Kim and K. Chitnis. (2007) Hanryu, the Korean Wave, Sweeps East Asia: Winter Sonata, a South Korean Television Series, Grips Japan,  The International Communication Gazette 69(3): 281–94. Accessed from http://utminers.utep.edu/asinghal/Reports/Hanaki_Singhal_Han_Kim_Chitnis_Gazette_2007.pdf

Han, Benjamin Min. (2008). Reliving Winter Sonata: memory, nostalgia and identity. Post Script, 27(3). Accessed from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/Post-Script/191765321.html

Han, Hee Joo & Jae-Sub Lee. (2008). A Study on the KBS drama Winter Sonata and its impact on Korea’s Hallyu tourism development. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 24 (2/3): 115-126. 

Kim, Samuel Seongseop, Jerome Agrusa and Kaye Chon. (2008). The effects of Korean pop culture on Hong Kong residents’ perceptions of Korea as a potential tourist destination. Journal of Travel & Tourism, 24(2/3):  163-183.

Mori, Yoshitaka. (2008). Winter Sonata and cultural practices of active fans in Japan: Considering middle-aged women as cultural agents. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 127-X. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press. 

Kim, Do Hyun et al. (2009). Television drama, narrative engagement and audience buying behavior: The Effects of Winter Sonata in Japan.The International Communication Gazette, 71(7): 1-17. Accessed from http://utminers.utep.edu/asinghal/Articles%20and%20Chapters/Kim-Singhal-et-al-2009-Winter-Sonata-0purchasing-behavior-Gazette-1.pdf

Lee, Jonghoon. (2010). Winter sonata dreams: The influence of the Korean wave on Japanese society. Thesis, Florida State University. 

Tokita, Alison. (2010). Winter Sonata and the politics of memory. In Black, D., Stephen Epstein and Alison Tokita (Eds.) Complicated Currents. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Monash University ePress. Accessed from http://books.publishing.monash.edu/apps/bookworm/view/Complicated+Currents/122/xhtml/chapter3.html

Happy Reading!

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Let KPK Introduce You to…Johnny Gill

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Artist: Park Hyo Shin

Press Play to Hear “어느새 (Suddenly)” from Park Hyo Shin’s album Neoclassicism (released June 2, 2005).

Park Hyo Shin’s vocal styling echoes…

Artist: Johnny Gill

Press Play to hear “Lady Dujour” from Johnny Gill’s album Let’s Get the Mood Right (released October 8, 1996).

ELEMENTS OF NOTE:

  • Wide vocal range, from falsetto to baritone.
  • Emotional vocal tones
  • Rich R&B instrumentation and arrangement.

MORE CONTEXT:

Learn more about Johnny Gill.

Happy Listening!

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For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 9: IMAGE

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Welcome to Part 9 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , and Part 8 of the bibliography.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu

NOTE:  In order to make it easier to locate authors (and where possible), I’ve modified these APA Style citations by adding full author names where possible.

Chung, Heejoon. (2003). Sport star vs. Rock star in globalizing popular culture: Similarities, differences and paradoxes in discussion of celebrities. International review for the Sociology of Sport, 38(1): 99-108.

Park. G. (2004). An analysis of the effects of Hanlyu reflected in street fashion in China. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 13(6): 967-983.

Rhee, Seung Chul. (2006). The average Korean attractive face. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 30(6): 729-730. doi: 10.1007/s00266-006-0157-x

Tsai, Eva. (2007). Caught in the terrains: an inter-referential inquiry of trans-border stardom and fandom. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8(1): 135-154. ALSO PRINTED in:  Tsai, Eva. 2007. Caught in the terrains: an inter-referential inquiry of trans-border stardom and fandom. In K-H Chen and C.B. Huat (Eds.) The Inter-Asia Cultural Studies Reader. pp.323-344. Abingdon: Routledge.

Rhee, Seung Chul, Eun Sang Dhong and Eul Sik Yoon. (2009). Photogrammatic facial analysis of attractive Korean entertainers. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 33(2): 167-174.

Lee Soojin. (2010). Celebrity fandom and its relationship to tourism and leisure behaviors: the case of the Korean wave. Thesis, Texas A&M University.

Kim, Joo Mee and Se Yeong Shin. (2011). The study on fashion, beauty, design and emotional image by external image type of Korean male idol stars. Fashion Business, 15(6):71-84. abstract here: http://www.papersearch.net/view/detail.asp?detail_key=1k901120

Kim, Yeran. (2011). Idol republic: the global emergence of girl industries and the commercialization of girl bodies. Journal of Gender Studies, 20(4): 333-345. DOI:10.1080/09589236.2011.617604 

Park, Judy. (2011). The aesthetic style of Korean singers in Japan: A review of Hallyu from the perspective of fashion. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(19): 23- 34. Accessed from http://www.ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_19_Special_Issue_October_2011/3.pdf

Maliangkay, Roald. (2012). The token non-conformist: The packaging of Korean boy and girl bands. Presented at the Nam Center for Korean Studies’ Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media Symposium. Accessed from https://www.ii.umich.edu/ncks/news-events/events/conferences—symposia/hallyu-2-0–the-korean-wave-in-the-age-of-social-media/hallyu-program/hallyu-2-0–roald-maliangkay.html 

Sung, Sang-Yeon Loise. (2012). The role of Hallyu in the construction of East Asian regional identity in Vienna. European Journal of East Asian Studies. 11(1): 155-171.

Howard, Keith. (2015). Politics, parodies, and the paradox of Psy’s ‘Gangnam Style.’ Romanian Journal of Sociological Studies, (1): 14-29. Accessed from http://journalofsociology.ro/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Full-text-pdf.1.pdf

Unger. Michael A. (2015). The aphoria of presentation: Deconstructing the genre of K-pop girl group music videos in South Korea. Journal of Popular Music Studies, 27(1): 25-47.

Kim, Suk Young. (2016). The many faces of K-pop music videos: Revues, Motown, and Broadway in ‘Twinkle.’ Journal of Popular Culture, 49(1): 136-154.

Rocha, Nayelli Lopez. (2016). The role of Hallyu as pop culture in the creation and dissemination of the contemporary Korean woman’s image. Portes: Revista Mexicana de estudios sobre la Cuenca del Pacifico, 9(18): 171-195. Accessed 16 June 2016 from http://revistasacademicas.ucol.mx/index.php/portes/article/view/412

Happy Reading!

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Let KPK Introduce You To…Black Greek Fraternity/Sorority Stepping

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

University of South Carolina Lancaster

Choreography and costuming for: “Maximum”

Group: TVXQ

Album: Keep Your Head Down

Album Release Date: January 5, 2011

Press Play to watch a live performance of “Maximum” by TVXQ.

“Maximum” choreography and concepts echo the traditional stepping performances of …)

Fraternity: Alpha Phi Alpha (AΦA) (the oldest African-American/Black Greek Letter Organization).

Founded: December 4, 1906 at Cornell University

AΦA’s signature stepping choreography: “Train,’” including synchronized hand or arm movements evocative of ancient Egyptian culture.

AΦA’s common performance elements, particularly for neophyte (new member) debuts: militarized or stealth-like costuming and/or masks/face coverings and hoods.*

Press Play to watch AΦA members perform a “train” step sequence (timestamp 2:51).

Press Play to watch AΦA neophytes (new members) debut on their campus.

ELEMENTS OF NOTE:

Introduction of individual members with ultimate group performance

  • Performer entrance is intense with high drama
  • All-male performers
  • Presentation points are to manifest gravity and high levels of athleticism, endurance, and self-confidence
  • Train step (footwork)
  • Synchronized and staggered arm movements
  • Hoods and covered faces, use of black military-like/stealth-like costuming
  • Songs or chants center on challenging others and overcoming obstacles, male posturing is performed (see English interpretation of “Maximum” lyrics)
  • Call-and-response performance

TRADE OFFS:

  • AΦA’s Egyptian hand formations vs. TVXQ’s mostly neutral hands or closed fists (TVXQ’s choreography includes general index-finger pointing throughout and a quick Kung Fu salute at 4:21)
  • AΦA’s call-and-response limited to fraternity members vs. TVXQ’s call-and-response with fans (who are not TVXQ group members)
  • AΦA’s militarized costuming evokes Black Panther significance in African-American culture vs. TVXQ’s stealth costuming evokes history of martial arts reconnaissance and stealth in Asian culture.

*KPK recognizes that masks are also used in Kpop talent training to disguise the identity of company trainees (those who are “pre-debut”). We also note that masks are worn by Black Greek neophytes to protect their identity until they are finally revealed at their probate (debut) show.

Learn more about Alpha Phi Alpha.

What is stepping?

See also: SHINee echoing Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, Incorporated; Rain/Bi echoing Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity.

Happy Watching!

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