Into the New World: Research Suggests Multi-Fandom the Norm for Veteran K-pop Fans

Source: Pixabay

While it may seem that the current norm in K-pop is single-fandom (the tendency to support just one artist), data suggests that older K-pop fans started and continue to be multi-fandom. This may be another way the overall K-pop fandom has shifted in the past few years.

With the rise of K-pop groups, their individual fandoms have also garnered more attention, leading some to focus on using a single fandom to define K-pop fandom in general. However, 316 responses collected between April 29, 2011 and March 4, 2015 suggest that K-pop fans of that era exhibited very different behaviors and attitudes. Respondents were asked the open-ended question, “How did you become interested in K-pop?”

Many respondents related their entrance into K-pop with specific groups, and overwhelmingly with one group in particular: SHINee. Other high recurring groups include BigBang, Super Junior and TVXQ. Rain was the most-cited solo artist. What is interesting is that these groups all debuted between 2003 and 2009. The first responses collected in 2011, so none of these groups were brand new to the K-pop scene at the time that respondents encountered them. For this generation of K-pop fan, the appeal of K-pop was asynchronous, meaning that individuals became fans, not as a result of debut promotion or marketing, but by other means.

More importantly, respondents routinely noted that once they discovered one K-pop group, they were motivated to look for additional groups. One noted, “My friend showed me SHINee’s Lucifer video, and I was immediately addicted to them.  So then I started looking up other groups too.”  Another responded wrote: “I started listening to more BigBang, and then other groups such as 2NE1 and SHINee, and then read a ton of Wikipedia pages about different groups and record labels and learned about the training system that K-pop stars go through before debuting. I also started watching variety shows that K-pop idols appear on, and find that whole concept really interesting too.” I call this phenomenon branching.

Some respondents go through a great deal of effort to expand to additional K-pop groups. One respondent explained how a search to find one K-pop song led to more: “However, the obsession didn’t just stop with that song. During the many hours that I spent trying to find the name of that song, I discovered many other catchy tunes and fell in love with a new genre of music that I had never heard of before.”  Several respondents use the term “research” to describe the activity of looking for more K-pop groups:  “I became interested in K-pop when I accidentally happened upon a Super Junior song on YouTube about 3-4 years ago. I don’t remember what song it was. But after I heard it I was thinking… Wow. This is good stuff. I want more. I wanna hear more. I researched, found more groups I absolutely fell in love with. Then 2-3 years ago, I found Big Bang, followed by 2NE1. And now all of the other amazing groups I love.”

For some, the quest for more K-pop groups takes them to other forms of Korean entertainment. K-drama and K-pop are linked, as members of K-pop groups often star in Korean television dramas and perform on soundtracks for the shows. One respondent noted:  “I happened across Kdramas and liked an actor in it. I found out he was a singer and then discovered other singers, groups, bands, etc.” Another explained:  “Hulu.com recommended a Kdrama to me called “Boys over Flowers” and as I became more interested in the characters and the OST for the show, I started to look up various actors/singers on YouTube.”

And while “idols” may be the way many are introduced to K-pop, the phenomenon of branching may take fans far afield. One respondent wrote:  “I think, what’s 2pm? I think my friend had mentioned groups named 2pm and 2am to me before, and I thought they were silly names. But I really liked Jason in Dream High, so I decided to look up this Wooyoung on YouTube. That day I discovered my love for K-pop. I became a hardcore Hottest, and expanded the groups and genres I listened to little by little until I was listening to anything from rap to pop to ballads to indie. All in a language I can’t completely understand.”

One respondent summed up the branching phenomenon with this formula:

JPop = discovered Tohoshinki = wiki = O.O = OMG! = google other kpop artists

Such findings suggest earlier generations of K-pop fans tend to develop more broad interests in K-pop that go beyond one group, while more contemporary fans seem to be more devoted to single groups. By only focusing exclusively on one group, they may be less knowledgeable about the larger K-pop and as a result may have distorted perceptions of it.  These findings also support  earlier findings that point to a more diverse general K-pop fandom, one that at the very least, is made up of those who support individual K-pop groups and those who support K-pop in general. Both may be needed for the continued viability of K-pop. Such findings reveal fan behavior that suggests that the appeal of K-pop is more complicated.  The K-pop landscape continues to change.

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Into the New World: Research Suggests Multi-fandom the Norm for Veteran K-pop Fans by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

The Creative Input of K-pop Artists

Kangta (Source: allkpop)

While many K-pop artists are managed to varying degrees by entertainment agencies, there have always been those who participate in the creative production of music.

It is common for those who write about K-pop groups to bemoan the lack of creative input by K-pop artists, particularly those who are identified as “idols,” individuals who engage in extra-musical activities in addition to musical performance. When writers do recognize such input, they often do so to point to a handful of K-pop artists who defy the odds and participate in the production of their own music. For example, in a story on Monsta X, Taylor Glasby writes, “K-pop can seem like a factory, its idols helpless drones rather than artists, and the stress and fatigue are often in the spotlight.” Writers frequently point to the casting and training system as a factory stifles creativity. They often highlight recent groups as those who have defied the odds. Monsta X debuted in 2015.

Doing so alludes to an unspoken comparison to “authentic” artists who are  involved in the production of their own music. However, this ignores the very long and prominent history of prominent pop artists not being involved in the creation of their music, as well as musical collaboration in American pop music, much of which goes uncredited. The documentary The Wrecking Crew (2008)reveals the impact of a group of session players responsible for many songs in American pop music in the 1960s. The documentary notes that this group of musicians often made up a lot of arrangements themselves beyond what may have been written, and sometimes, the artists themselves were never involved in the production of the music. The music industry has only become more collaborative, with musicians, producers and arrangers working from various locations. They do not even have to be in the same room to make a song. When K-pop artists are routinely characterized as not participating in the music creation process, it suggests that they are not legitimate.

However, it is the very casting and training system that also trains some K-pop artists to contribute creatively to music production. Shin Hyunjoon notes that “in a multi-story building with recording studios, rehearsal rooms and conference rooms, the staff and employees work as songwriter-arrangers, recording engineers, managers, choreographers, costume designers, design coordinators. . . . Not only singer-dancer-actor aspirants but also those who want to work for the company can get the relevant education in a classroom located in the entertainment companies’ buildings” (510). It seems a bit unrealistic to expect new trainees who may be in their early to-mid teens to become conversant in music production and work on a song. However, undergoing training process and debuting and performing as a group has given trainees the necessary experience, as several artists have gone on to become music producers.

More recent K-pop groups seem more likely to be involved in the production of their own music. allkpop points to members of BigBang, Highlight (formerly BEAST), Block B, B.A.P, VIXX, BTS, CNBlue, 2PM and BTOB as individuals who have either composed, produced or written lyrics for songs. Several of these groups are newer to K-pop. Some point to them, saying that the industry is changing by allowing them to participate in the production of their own music.

However, K-pop has always has some artists who provided creative input into music production for their own groups, their solo work and other people. As longtime fans know, H.O.T, widely acknowledged as the first successful male “idol” group, began to participate in the production of their own music with the album Outside Castle (2000). Kangta, a member of H.O.T, is credited with lyrics, composing and arranging “Pray for You” from Outside Castle and “Bit” (Hope) from Resurrection (1998), a song that ends up becoming the encore song for SM Town concerts.

After H.O.T’s disbandment, Kangta contributes to music production for other SM Entertainment artists, including Fly to the Sky, BoA, Girls’ Generation and Shinhwa (before the group left the label in 2003). For example, Kangta is credited with the lyrics (with Brian Joo, one of the two members of Fly to the Sky), composition and arrangement for Fly To the Sky’s 2001 track”Shy Love.”

Kangta also embarks on a solo music career following the disbandment of H.O.T. He not only collaborates with Vanness Wu for a Mandopop album, but also writes, arranges and produces a number of tracks for his own solo albums Polaris (2001), Pine Tree (2002), and Persona (2005). While his work with Vanness is electronic dance music, Kangta consistently relies on the ballad and natural instrumentation that emphasizes his voice, such as the track “Mabi (Paralysis)”:

Kangta demonstrates that some K-pop artists have participated in music production since the beginning of K-pop. This trend has become more commonplace recently, making the K-pop landscape more complicated, one that includes those who sing music produced by others (a long-time tradition in pop music) as well as those who produce music for themselves and others.

Image

elliefilet. “Kangta of H.O.T Says He Wants To Get Married.” allkpop. 16 Sept 2017. https://www.allkpop.com/article/2017/09/kangta-of-hot-says-he-wants-to-get-married (25 May 2018).

Sources

Shin Hyunjoon. “Have You Ever Seen The Rain? And Who’ll Stop the Rain?: The Globalizing Project of Korean pop (K-pop).” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 10.4 (2009): 507-523. DOI: 10.1080/14649370903166150.

Taylor Glasby. “Monsta X: The Boyband Surviving the K-pop Factory.” The Guardian. 4 May 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/music/2018/may/04/monsta-x-the-boyband-surviving-the-k-pop-factory (25 May 2018).

Videos

SONEPANDA01. “HD] All Artists – Hope @ SMTown World Tour in Tokyo.” YouTube. 27 Oct 2012. https://youtu.be/mSVppYAeH9g (25 May 2018).

Zeroforce14. “Kangta – Paralysis.” YouTube. 12 Dec 2011. https://youtu.be/4282VnkgkPI (25 May 2018).

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The Creative Input of K-pop Artists by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

New K-pop Stans, Here’s What You Missed: Fan Favorites, 2012-2015

Source: Pixabay

The K-pop fandom landscape has changed in the past few years. Data suggests that the general K-pop “idol” fandom is more divided than it was less than 10 years ago and challenges some widely held notions about the preferences of global K-pop fans.

With the expansion of K-pop globally has come increased division among the general fandom. An article on seoulwave bemoans the increase of tensions among fan groups:  “The K-pop fan community is suffering from a plague right now. Fandoms everywhere are wrought with fan wars sparked by the most minor things. The source of this illness is, ironically, loyalty. As Korean entertainment companies keep pumping out new artists and K-pop continues its plan for world domination, fandoms begin to feel an almost desperate need to keep their favorite groups on top.”  Fans argue over whether it is better to be multi-fandom (a fan of multiple K-pop artists) or single fandom (a fan of one K-pop artist). Fans exchange insults on social media when they feel their artist has been disrespected. Newer K-pop fans seek to impose standards on the “correct” way to talk about artists.

However, survey data suggests that the general K-pop fandom was not always this divisive. This data, from my 3 Year Korean Popular Music Survey asked respondents to list their three favorite K-pop groups or artists. 362 responses were collected between April 19, 2012 and March 25, 2015. Respondents hailed from the United States  (116),  the Philippines, (42), Australia (22), Indonesia (17), the United Kingdom (15), Germany (14), Malaysia (13), Canada (12) and other countries.

Only 2% of respondents identified only one group in answer to the survey question. Most of the rest of the respondents had no problem identifying three distinct groups as their favorite. This suggests that being multi-fandom was the norm for global K-pop fans between 2012 and 2015.

Survey data also suggests that most respondents were not agency-stans, or K-pop fans who exclusively support one Korean entertainment agency. Only 8.1% identified three groups that were all represented by the same agency. 40% of respondents identified three groups from three different agencies. Only 2.8% identified all-girl groups and only 3.6% identified groups that tended to be largely aligned with hip-hop. Many respondent grouped artists that represent vastly different musical styles. For example, one respondent listed 2NE1, a female “idol” group that draws heavily on hip-hop, Super Junior, an “idol” group that frequently produces electronic music and Boyfriend, a newer “idol” group with a more pop-y sound. Another listed B.A.P, a hip-hop leaning male “idol” group, Girls’ Generation, one of the oldest and most popular girl groups and EXO, a male “idol” group with strong ties to R&B and electronic dance music.

Other respondents joined groups whose fandoms experience tension today. For example, jubilantj reports on a BTS fan’s apology letter to the fans of SHINee, BEAST, Winner, EXO, BigBang and VIXX in response to recent tensions among the fandoms. However, respondents frequently listed BTS with these very groups as their favorite between 2012 and 2015. One respondent listed BTS, Infinite and BigBang. Another listed BEAST, BTS and 2NE1. There were several who listed EXO, BTS and GOT7.

Other results point to a different kind of diversity among global K-pop fans that challenges widely-held notions. K-pop tends to be populated by groups, but 10% of the respondents identified a solo artist from a range of genres as one of their three favorites, including Beenzino, G-Dragon, IU, Ailee, Kim Hyun Joong and Junsu (Xia). While K-pop has more male groups than female groups and many complain about the cutesy image of many of the female groups, 28% of respondents identified at least one girl group as one of their favorite three. In addition, several respondents (8%) listed a K-pop artist that debuted in 2003 or earlier as one of their three favorites. Such older artists included H.O.T, the first successful “idol” group, Rain (Bi), the well-known solo artist, BoA, the very successful female artist, old-school hip-hop group 1TYM and veteran hip-hop group Epik High. While many describe K-pop as trendy, these responses point to the continued impact of K-pop on fans.

Asking K-pop fans to list their favorite groups revealed patterns in fan preferences and suggests that the attitudes and behavior of general K-pop fandom has shifted over time.

 

Sources

jubilantj. “BTS fan uploads lengthy, apologetic letters to various fandoms on behalf of all the ARMYs.” allkpop. 9 May 2016. https://www.allkpop.com/article/2016/05/bts-fan-uploads-lengthy-apologetic-letters-to-various-fandoms-on-behalf-of-all-the-armys (18 May 2018).

Staff. “How To Be a Better K-pop Fan.” seoulwave. 11 Dec 2017. http://www.seoulwave.com/2017/12/11/how-to-be-a-better-k-pop-fan/ (18 May 2018).

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New K-pop Stans, Here’s What You Missed: Fan Favorites, 2012-2015 by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

On The Passing of Jonghyun

Like many K-pop fans, the members of KPK: Kpop Kollective are extremely heavy at heart about the passing of Jonghyun. Both Kaetrena and I are Shawols, and just saw the group in Dallas.  We know that for many, SHINee was the group that introduced them to K-pop, and Jonghyun was not only an integral part of the group, but shared his songwriting gifts with others.  He will be deeply missed.

Kaetrena has written “A Little Less SHINe(e), The Big Loss of Bling,” for her blog The Ink on the Page, which I believe is entirely fitting.

The Music of INFINITE

The Music of INFINITE

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Longwood University

Infinite consistently produces electronic pop. While they have their share of fans, their releases receive few reviews. However, “Amazing” and “The Chaser” have received a positive reception. Arnold notes: “This song is spot on when it comes to fusing Infinite’s voices and a flawless pop arrangement. It’s got a classic drum section, with a sparkly piano line that helps lift this song off of the ground.”  Nicola Rivera writes that “The Chaser” “is Infinite inside out. . . . The Infinite synths are there, the rap part is ever so slightly familiar, and the melody is so well-done. Another thing I like so much about Infinite is how they make a potentially heavy song very light and flow-y, without losing character and punch.”

Spotlight Tracks: 1. Tic Toc, Over the Top (2011) | 2. The Chaser, Infinitize (2012) | 3. Paradise,  Paradise (2011) | 4. Only Tears, Infinitize (2012) | 5. Amazing, Over the Top, (2011) | 6. Cover Girl (2012) | 7. Julia, Over the Top (2011) | Real Story, Over the Top (2011)

For more information about the music of Infinite, see the digital exhibit Infinite: Over the Top.

Sources

Image

alice101. “INFINITE reveal which artists they want to collaborate with.” allkpop. 7 Oct 2016. http://www.allkpop.com/article/2016/10/infinite-reveal-which-artists-they-want-to-collaborate-with (28 Jul 2017).

Sources

Arnold. “[Review] ‘Over the Top’ by INFINITE.” Allkpop. 1 Aug 2011. https://www.allkpop.com/article/2011/08/review-over-the-top-by-infinite. (29 Aug 2017).

Rivera, Nicola. “INFINITE – “INFINITIZE”” Pop Reviews Now. 15 May 2012. http://popreviewsnow.blogspot.com/2012/05/infinite-infinitize.html. (5 Sept 2017).

 

3 Useful Things To Know About Cultural Appropriation and K-pop

3 Useful Things To Know About Cultural Appropriation and K-pop

 

It was great to be a part of the “Black Popular Music and K-pop” panel at #KCON17LA. The session was lively! In light of that discussion, here are three things that may be useful as people continue to think about the session or for those who could not attend. The session was important, not just for black K-pop fans to voice their experiences, but for ALL fans of K-pop, since we are getting joy from the influence of black popular music on K-pop.

What is Cultural Appropriation….REALLY?

Cultural appropriation is a term that comes from academia, used in a variety of scholarly fields, where it was a neutral concept. In Cultural Appropriation and the Arts, James O. Young notes that it has since come to mean something different:

It does not necessarily carry with it any moral baggage. Someone might prefer to use the concept of cultural appropriation to designate an objectionable class of transactions. Such people would distinguish cultural appropriation from cultural exchange or cultural borrowing, which could be unobjectionable. (5)

Young goes on to apply the concept “to any use of something developed in one cultural context by someone who belongs to another culture” (5). This is neutral. However, when people use the term in relation to K-pop, they often tend to do so to point out negative appropriation, where the cultural use is objectionable.

BUT, appropriation is inevitable when cultures come into contact with each other. Young says, “Almost all artists engage in some sort of appropriation in that they borrow ideas, motifs, plots, technical devices, and so forth from other artists (4).

So how can we tell the difference between the inevitable cultural exchange and negative appropriation? I like Elizabeth Jaikaran‘s three questions to pose when wondering if something is negative cultural appropriation in “The Discussion We Need to Have: Cultural Appropriation vs. Cultural Appreciation:”

Is the cultural element that is being used exclusive to my own cultural tradition?

Is the institution using this element a truly problematic one that is harmful to my culture’s dignity?

Based on the answers gleaned from 1 and 2, is this appropriation or appreciation?

This may be helpful for K-pop fans trying to make sense of what they may perceive as negative appropriation. This involves not only using an element of black popular culture, but doing so in a way that mocks or demeans. So, you can have feelings about some uses of black popular culture by K-pop, but it doesn’t necessarily rise to the level of negative cultural appropriation.

The Interracial Roots of Black Popular Music

Some people feel some kind of way about the influence of black music on K-pop. Black popular music been used by those who did not always acknowledge the source of the music, but it has also been made and appreciated by those outside of the culture. Black popular music itself appropriates (in the neutral sense!) from other cultures and it has operated as an inviting site where everyone is welcome.   For example, Robin D.G. Kelley notes that anyone can have soul:

Soul was a euphemism or a creative way of identifying what many believed was a black aesthetic or black style, and it was a synonym for black itself or a way to talk about being black without reference to color, which is why people of other ethnic groups could have soul. . . . It was almost never conceived by African Americans as an innate, genetically derived feature of black life (26-6).

To say that only black people can like, enjoy or participate in black music is essentialist and contradicted by the history of black music. Black popular music in the United States historically provided a space where black and white musicians could come together to make some of the most memorable music, including jazz, rock, R&B and hip-hop.  The documentary Muscle Shoals shows how white musicians from Alabama provided the instrumentation for some of the most soulful records ever produced during the segregation era.  Def Jam Records, iconic in American hip-hop, was founded by Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin, a white music producer who began as a college kid running music production out of his NYU dorm room.

Moreover, black people are very involved in the production of K-pop, including Ebony Rae Vanderveer and Bruce “Automatic” Vanderveer of InRage Entertainment, who were instrumental in bringing the “Black American Music and K-pop” panel to KCON. Looking at the production credits for K-pop music reveals a plethora of black music producers who have solid credentials in American R&B and hip-hop.

The heart of black popular music is not exclusionary and K-pop artists do recognize the roots of black music. This can be seen in recorded radio show appearances by K-pop artists like Starry Night, Kiss the Radio, and Shimshimtapa, where they often talk about their influences or through interviews.

A New View on Authenticity

At the heart of the discussions at the panel at KCON was the notion of authenticity, but authenticity can be subjective. It can be impacted by how much knowledge or actual experience a person has. John L. Jackson warns of the limits of authenticity when it is based on “guidelines for proper and improper behavior, for legitimate and illegitimate group membership, for social inclusion or ostracism” that ultimately function to “delimit individuals’ social options” (13). In the case of K-pop, calls for limited forms of authenticity could result in actually excluding people if they do not conform. Different people have notions of what is real, so one person’s opinion that a K-pop artist is being “real” may differ from another. What if one person’s notion of authenticity is based on wrong information? Who gets to decide who is authentic?

Jackson poses an alternative, suggesting that we use the concept of sincerity which recognizes subjectivity and avoids exclusion: “Sincerity privileges intent . . . allowing for the possibility of performative ad-libbing and inevitable acceptance of trust amid uncertainty as the only solution to interpersonal ambiguity” (18). Instead of starting from suspicion and accusations of theft, sincerity leaves room for the possibility that people do not mean harm. A person can be sincere and still get it wrong.  Jackson suggests that we leave open that possibility.

 

Sources

Jackson, John L. Real Black: Adventures in Racial Sincerity. University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Kelley, Robin D.G. Yo Mama’s Disfunktional! Fighting the Culture Wars in Urban America. Beacon Press, 1997.

Young James O. Cultural Appropriation and the Arts. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. doi: 10.1002/9780470694190.ch1

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3 Useful Things To Know About Cultural Appropriation and K-pop by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Panelist at KCON 2017 LA!

Crystal S. Anderson (PhD), Director of KPK: Kpop Kollective will be a panelist at KCON 2017 LA! Panel 502B, “Black American Music and K-pop”, will be on Sunday, August 20, 2:30 p.m. – 3:30 p.m. Hope to see you there!

In the meantime, check out some of my work on Black American Music and K-pop.

Not Just Pretty Faces: K-pop Idols and Quiet Storm Masculinity

Black Popular Music and K-pop

Ethnicity, Glamour and Image in Korean Popular Music

How Does It Feel to be a Question?: That (Black) Girl and K-pop

K-pop and Hip Hop

Of Misconceptions About Cultural Appropriation in K-pop

Talking About Asians Behaving Badly: Fan Reaction to the Block B-Jenny Hyun-MBC Blackface Controversies

 

S.E.S: Remember

S.E.S: Remember

By Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Research Scholar, Longwood University

Formed in 1997 by SM Entertainment, S.E.S debuted the same year as Baby V.O.X, Jinusean and Sechs Kies and became the first successful female group in the Hallyu K-pop era.  Arriving on the burgeoning K-pop scene in the wake of H.O.T’s success, S.E.S represents the beginning of the female K-pop group.  While some, like Yeran Kim, argue that the group “uniformly featured a girlie image mainly appealing to girl subculture groups,” S.E.S’s career shows how female K-pop groups developed its sound and image over time (338). Kim Chang Nam notes how S.E.S distinguished themselves from other female groups: “S.E.S started off with an image as cute-looking girls and later moved toward more mythical and unrealistic characters” (95).  Like many of the first generation idol groups, S.E.S disbanded within five years, in 2002. The members continued to have careers in the entertainment industry. Bada has gone on to appear in musicals, Eugene continued on as a singer as well as actor in K-dramas and Shoo has subsequently recorded music. In late 2016, S.E.S announced their comeback.

LABELMATES

BoA | Kangta | J-Mi | Dana | Sunday | Henry | Taemin | Zhou Mi | Kyuhyun | Jonghyun | Amber | Taeyeon | Ryeowook | Yesung | Tiffany | Luna | Lay | Seohyun | Hyoyeon | TVXQ | TRAX | CSJH The Grace | Super Junior | Girls’ Generation | SHINee | f(x) | EXO | Red Velvet | NCT

COLLABORATIONS

  1. S.E.S X Fin.K.L X Baby V.O.X X H.O.T

 

Image

“S.E.S 20th anniversary project group photo.png.” kpop wiki. http://kpop.wikia.com/wiki/File:S.E.S_20th_anniversary_project_group_photo.png (28 Jul 2017).

Articles

Kim, Chang Nam.  K-pop: Roots and Blossoming of Korean Popular Music. Seoul: Hollym, 2012.

Kim, Yeran. “Idol Republic: The Global Emergence of Girl Industries and the Commercialization of Girl Bodies.” Journal of Gender Studies 20.4 (2011): 333-345. DOI: 10.1080/09589236.2011.617604

Videos

YYgurl. “FinKL, SES, Baby VOX, HOT- Group Concert (1).” YouTube. 25 Oct 2008. https://youtu.be/uMvA8NTH3A0 (28 Jul 2017).

Infinite: Nothing’s Over

Infinite: Nothing’s Over

by Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Research Scholar of Cultural Studies

Longwood University

Infinite debuted in 2010, the same year as CN Blue, Teen Top and ZE:A. The group is known for their synchronized and complex choreography, Dong-woo wants the group to be known for its music as well:  “Although ‘Come Back Again’ is an old song, when you listen to it again, it’s a song that has a firm structure with plush arrangements. We matured and were able to make a mark through singing and performing great songs” (billboard).

LABELMATES

Dae Yoel & Jae Seok & Dong Hyun | Jang Jun & Young Taek | Joo Chan & So Yoon | Nam Woo Hyun | Lovelyz | Jisun | Joo

COLLABORATIONS

  1. INFINITE X EXO (2014 KBS Song Festival) | 2. INFINITE X N.EX.T X EXO X Beast (2014 KBS Song Festival) | 3. INFINITE X Teen Top (special stage) | 4. INFINITE X Super Junior X 4minute X f(x) (2011 KBS Music Festival) | 5. INFINITE X Lovelyz | 6. INFINITE X Teen Top (Music Bank K-Chart)

Image

alice101. “INFINITE reveal which artists they want to collaborate with.” allkpop. 7 Oct 2016. http://www.allkpop.com/article/2016/10/infinite-reveal-which-artists-they-want-to-collaborate-with (28 Jul 2017).

Articles

Benjamin, Jeff. “Meet INFINITE: Video Q&A with Rising K-pop Superstars.” Billboard. 29 Jan 2013. http://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/k-town/1535974/meet-infinite-video-qa-with-the-rising-k-pop-superstars (29 Jul 2017).

Video

KBS World TV. “INFINITE & EXO – Collaboration [2014 KBS Song Festival / 2015.01.14].” YouTube. 25 Jan 2015. https://youtu.be/5ygpBlBxmP4  (28 Jul 2017).

KBS World TV. “N.EX.T & EXO & INFINITE & Beast – Shin Hae-chul’s Tribute [2014 KBS Song Festival / 2015.01.14].” YouTube. 24 Jan 2015. https://youtu.be/kV5DG27jWaU (28 Jul 2017).

enj ch. “[HD]Infinite & Teen Top – To You @Special stage.” YouTube. 18 Aug 2012. https://youtu.be/xBMtXACqAK0 (28 Jul 2017).

Hope Song. “111230 Super Junior INFINITE 4minute fx Shuffle Dance on 2011 KBS Music Festival 720.” YouTube. 7 Jul 2012. https://youtu.be/jh_4aKsUz3s (28 Jul 2017).

Lovelyz Turkey. “131227 INFINITE – Man in Love with Lovelyz.” YouTube. 6 Nov 2014. https://youtu.be/LO3ZTyRomcE (28 Jul 2017).

KBS World TV. “[Music Bank K-Chart] INFINITE & TEEN TOP – The Chaser & To You (2012.06.29).” YouTube. 3 Jul 2012. https://youtu.be/PPqmMc-lrdc (28 Ju 2017).

 

The Music of 2PM

The Music of 2PM

by Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

2PM’s albums consistently blend R&B-inspired tracks and party songs.

Reviewers do not have consensus on 01:59PM (2009), 2PM’s first album, and Go Crazy (2014). Critical response to the first album suggests that the group was still looking to establish its sound and make use of the individual talents of its members.  Reviewers liked the promotional track, “Heartbeat,” as well as the non-promotional track, “I Was Crazy About You.” Random J says:  ““The military style drums line and smooth piano melody provide a nice musical back drop and the 2PM boys sound strong. This is probably the song on the album where their vocals are strongest” (Random J-pop)Yeeun focuses on the rhythm:  “The steady bass riff physically causes my heart to race as if my pulse was attempting to catch up with the beat of the song” (Yeeun2Grace).   Reviewers of Go Crazy liked the title track, “Go Crazy,” as well as the non-promotional track “Mine,” linking it to artists like Michael Jackson and Prince. A reviewer for Adrienne Stanley says the song “delivers the album into the territory of ’90s inspired R&B, with lyrics by Chansung and Taecyeon. The track channels the sound of artists like Michael Jackson, in a unique and infectious way” (KPopStarz). L suggests that the song “caters to an adult party where everything is slow and sexy. I’m especially partial to the falsetto throughout the chorus as a nod to legendary funk artist, Prince.” (Critical K-pop).

Grown (2013) is 2PM’s most favorably reviewed album. There is critical consensus for “A.D.T.O.Y. (All Day I Think About You )” and “Come Back When You Hear This Song”, but reviewers liked several other tracks on the album. 2PM reaches a sonic achievement with the ballad “Love Song.” Cheyanne draws attention to the unique rhythm:  ““The beat behind their singing in this song is really different to the average K-pop fan. It has this live band vibe to it even though there wasn’t a live band present” (Soju and Koolaid) Krusty95 focuses on the vocals:  “This song had started so strongly. But, it was definitely the chorus with Wooyoung and Junho, singing together for the first time like ever (as I can recall) in the history of 2PM’s music, that sold me already and consolidated its position as my most loved song on the album” (The World of Krusty).  With “I’m Sorry,” 2PM solidifies its R&B credentials.  Cheyanne notes:  “I have to say, they really made a great song for the R&B fans out there. I would never expect a group like 2PM to pull off a song like this. All their voices fit really well with the beat. The harmonizing that is done by some members during their parts add a special, nostalgic feeling to those fans who like music like this.” seoulbeats focuses on the vocals:  “Those slides and slight harmonies in the chorus are to die for. For once, I don’t actually want to chuck the rap out the window, because here, it provides a nice break in all the “smooth like butter” vocal lines.”

Hands Up (2011) was equally well-received. In addition to its titular track, the album also features several tracks that attracted reviewers attention. Jessie Zhao declares “Like a Movie” the best track of the album:  “It starts out all calm and soothing with the members’ beautiful vocals. A gorgeous piano melody is slowly combined with snare drums and the feeling builds up. This track could have easily been labeled as another ballad that a group inserts just for the heck of it, but with the harmonious vocals from 2PM and amazing composition, this track is able to stand out” (Ningin).  Arnold Artega describes “Don’t You Know” as a quintessential K-pop song: “It’s not trying too hard to sound Western like a lot of Kpop tends to do. Instead, 2PM polishes what Korean pop music is all about and lays down some catchy (but not gimmicky) melodies that are less pretentious and way more fun to jive to” (One Kpop).

However, 2PM has also mastered the up-tempo party track.  “Magic” from No.5 (2015) foregrounds its instrumentation. Eric_r_wirsing notes the song ““starts with insistent horns and has an urgent tone to it. It never loses its body-moving groove throughout, and there’s some hints of guitars in here as well. It’s a powerful, catchy tune and is just what the doctor ordered to shake things up some” (allkpop).  Elaine Lewis echoes this sentiment:  “The horns used in the song were amazing and definitely sped the tempo a little bit giving it a sense of urgency. The lyrics are also very flirty and playful” (Amino Apps).

Spotlight Tracks: 1. Heartbeat | 2. Go Crazy | 3. I Was Crazy About You | 4. Mine | 5. Love Song | 6. A.D.T.O.Y (All Day I Think About You | 7. I’m Sorry | 8. Come Back When You Hear This Song | 9. Magic | 10. Like A Movie | 11. Don’t You Know

Sources

Image

“2PM – Grown (Photoshoot).” K-pop. 10 May 2013. http://kpop-u-luv.blogspot.com/2013/05/2pm-grown-photoshoot.html. (7 Aug 2016)

 

Reviews

Artega, Arnold. 2012. “[Review] ‘Hands Up’ by 2PM.” Review of Hands Up, by 2PM. One Kpop, January 23, http://onekpop.com/693/review-hands-up-by-2pm/.

Cheyanne. 2013. “A Review on 2PM’s Album: Grown.” Review of Grown, by 2PM. Soju and Koolaid, May, http://sojuandkoolaid.blogspot.com/2013/05/a-review-on-2pms-album-grown.html.

Eric_r_wirsing. 2015. “[Album Review] 2PM.” Review of No. 5, by 2PM. allkpop, June 15, http://www.allkpop.com/review/2015/06/album-review-2pm-no-5.

Guest. 2013. “2PM, Let’s See How Much You’ve Grown.” Review of Grown, by 2PM. seoulbeats, May13, http://seoulbeats.com/2013/05/2pm-lets-see-how-much-youve-grown/.

Krusty95. “2PM ‘Grown’ Album Review.” Review of Grown, by 2PM. The World of Krusty, June 11, https://theworldofkrusty.wordpress.com/2013/06/11/2pm-grown-album-review/.

L. 2014. “Review: 2PM’s Go Crazy!” Review of Go Crazy, by 2PM. Critical K-pop, October 10, http://www.criticalkpop.com/2014/10/review-2pms-go-crazy.html.

Lewis, Elaine. 2016. “2PM – No.5 Album Review.” Review of No.5, by 2PM. K-pop Amino, January 9, http://aminoapps.com/page/k-pop/9888602/2pm-no-5-album-review.

Random J. 2010. “Album Review: 2PM – 1:59PM.” Review of 01:50PM, by 2PM. Random JPop, January 4, http://randomjpop.blogspot.com/2010/01/album-review-2pm-159pm.html.

Stanley, Adrienne. 2014. “Album Review: 2PM Delivers Jazzy Party Tracks on ‘Go Crazy![Audio].” Review of Go Crazy, by 2PM. KPopStarz, Sept 15, http://www.kpopstarz.com/articles/111688/20140915/album-review-2pm-delivers-jazzy-party-tracks-on-go-crazy-audio.htm.

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The Music of 2PM by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.