REVISED Last Fans Standing: Veteran Fans of K-pop

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

One of the things that happens when conducting qualitative surveys is that they can raise more questions than they answer. This is what happened with the preliminary data from Last Fans Standing: Longtime and Adult Fans of Korean Popular Music (K-pop). Response rates were unusually low, which was unusual given the rising number of fans who have been fans for more than five years. I speculated that respondents may think that only adult fans who had also been fans for five years or more could take the survey. So, I revised the survey to focus solely on veteran fans of K-pop, individuals who had been fans for five years or more. This means all you fans of ZE:A, CN Blue, SISTAR, Infinite, Miss A, Teen Top, Nine Muses, T-ara, f(x), BEAST/Highlight, SHINee, UKISS, 2PM, IU, Wonder Girls, KARA, FT. Island, Girls’ Generation, SS501, Super Junior, BoA, Dynamic Duo, Epik High, Lee Hyori, Kangta, Se7en, TVXQ, K. Will, Big Bang, 2NE1, 4Minute, Fly to the Sky, g.o.d, H.O.T, Jinusean, S.E.S, Sechs Kies, Shinhwa, and any other group that debuted more than 5 years ago need to get on it!

The revised survey can be found here:

Fandom Case Study: Girls’ Generation (SNSD)

Fandom Case Study: Girls’ Generation (SNSD)


Girls' Generation
Girls’ Generation

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

Finally, the first fandom case study is complete on KPopCulture! Girls’ Generation (SNSD) Fandom Case Study contains an introduction to the discourse surrounding the group, which captures the difference between the way fans view the female group and the way commentators view the group:

Nevertheless, the group boasts one of the most active and well-organized global fandoms with fans who document the activities of the group as well as engage in philanthropic activities in the name of the group. This case study explores SNSD fans and their activities. SONES, or fans of SNSD, like the group for a variety of reasons, including the group’s music, appearance and individual members. Yet, there are some fans who are describe themselves as “not fans.” SONES well-organized websites provide fans with information about the group, images, video and forums for discussion. Site administrators also participate in philanthropic activities. SONEs also administer a variety of Twitter accounts, Facebook pages and Tumblrs, both in English and in other languages.  SONEs can be found in a variety of countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Peru, Spain, Colombia, Italy, Poland and Venezuela.  SONEs not only view videos and listen to the songs of SNSD, they perform the choreography and cover their favorite songs.

It also contains an analysis of survey data and a compilation of email interviews with fans. Read more and see downloadable and complete data sets at KPopCulture!

Image: 1

Like Vs. Love: Research Reveals Degrees of Attachment Among K-pop Fans

K-pop is well-known for the introduction of new groups, even while established groups continue to thrive. But are fans fickle in their K-pop choices? Do they abandon older groups for newer groups? Research suggests that while K-pop fans readily accept new groups, they have a deeper connection with veteran groups. These conclusions are based on data collected online through the Hallyu Korean Music Survey, part of a five-year study on international K-pop fans by Crystal S. Anderson.

The survey asks respondents to check all of the K-pop groups they like from a pre-determined list. This list emerged from earlier research that revealed a group of K-pop artists that global fans consistently identified as their favorites.  Out of 5099 responses from 282 respondents, the following groups represent the top 10:

  1. BigBang
  2. 2NE1
  3. SHINee
  4. Super Junior
  5. f(x)
  7. MBLAQ
  8. B.A.P
  9. SNSD/Girls’ Generation

Respondents were then asked to name any group they liked not found in the predetermined list.  Out of 1229 responses from 237 respondents, the top 10 responses were:

  1. EXO
  2. Block B
  3. BTOB
  4. B1A4
  5. VIXX
  6. NU’EST
  7. Teen Top
  8. BTS
  10. Secret

Respondents were then asked to list their three favorite K-pop groups. Out of 788 responses from 268 respondents, the top 10 responses were:

  1. BigBang
  2. SHINee
  3. EXO
  4. Super Junior
  5. Infinite
  6. 2NE1
  7. SNSD/Girls’ Generation
  8. JYJ
  9. MBLAQ
  10. TVXQ

This data suggests that K-pop fans are receptive to newer K-pop male groups. Nearly all of the groups not included in the predetermined list are groups that debuted after 2010. Female groups continue to lag behind, probably due to the fact that most K-pop groups that debut are male. However, established K-pop groups dominate when fans are asked to identify their favorite K-pop groups.  This list mirrors the predetermined list, which suggests that the longer the group has been active, more connected fans feel to the group.  Infinite has become a group that fans consistently say they like, replacing a group like BEAST/B2ST, which may have been out of the spotlight for a period of time. The notable exception is EXO, who fans identify as a group that they live and a favorite group. EXO debuted in 2011, and has managed to create a level of fan loyalty equal to more established K-pop groups.

So, what does this mean? It seems to suggest that fans of K-pop make choices about the degree of their fan loyalty based on the longevity of the group. K-pop group longevity (or how long a group has been active) makes a difference to fans. This has long-term implications for how K-pop continues to be promoted. Agencies who focus on churning out new groups without cultivating the fandom may see less of an impact than agencies who take time to establish a long-term fan relationship between artists and fans. Such activities may include creating the fan name so that fans can identify with a particular group, creating behind-the-scene shows where fans can see artists when they are not performing, and creating other opportunities for artists to remain in the public eye, such as endorsements and television appearances.


“BigBang, Love Song (,” Hallyu Harmony, accessed July 14, 2014,

“EXO, Promo Dark Sky (seoulbeats),” Hallyu Harmony, accessed July 14, 2014,

Creative Commons License
Like Vs. Love: Research Reveals Degrees of Attachment Among K-pop Fans by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Whose Generation? GIRLS’ GENERATION!: Gender, Audience and K-pop

Whose Generation? GIRLS’ GENERATION!: Gender, Audience and K-pop
Girls' Generation, Vogue Japan, 2011
Girls’ Generation, Vogue Japan, 2011

by Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

As the number of female groups increase in number in K-pop, commentators and scholars continue to focus on the meaning of the representations produced by these groups. While some argue that such representations are geared towards men, this ignores the way the majority female fanbases of these groups construct meaning of these representations.

Continue reading “Whose Generation? GIRLS’ GENERATION!: Gender, Audience and K-pop”

iFans Update: Girls’ Generation (SNSD) Into the New World Remix Cover Dances

Girls' Generation (SNSD)
Girls’ Generation (SNSD)

The iFans project rolls on with more cover dance!  The second section of the exhibit, Dance Like Everybody’s Watching: K-pop Cover Dances, features Girls’ Generation‘s “Into the New World Remix.”  Click HERE to view K-pop fans from around the world performing one of the most complicated dance routines by a girl group.

Image: 1

iFans Update: What Fans Think about SNSD


As you know, iFans: Mapping Kpop’s International Fandom is a study seeking to understand the attitudes of global fans of K-pop’s most successful groups. You can now view the results of the analysis of the survey data and an email interview with a fan of SNSD!  Click here to view the What Fans Think section of the digital exhibit.  Sad that you aren’t included? You can always take the email survey online here! C’mon, SONES, you are one of the biggest K-pop fandoms out there! Click the link and represent!

iFans Case Studies Status Update

Infographic based on data collected by Crystal S. Anderson as part of the iFans research study
Infographic based on data collected by Crystal S. Anderson as part of the iFans research study

If you keep with research on K-pop, you may be aware of the iFans: Mapping Kpop’s International Fandom project.  The surveys that make up the qualitative studies seek to understand how the fandoms differ from one another and their relationship to the groups they support. K-pop fans know that the fandoms are unique. Because they have detailed knowledge of the groups they support, they provide a unique perspective on the appeal of their respective groups. Too often, commentators make assumptions about K-pop fans, while the iFans studies goes to the source: the fans.

As the chart above shows, fans of 2NE1 and BigBang have participated the most in the surveys, while fans of Shinhwa and Aziatix have participated the least.   Other groups with high participation rates include SHINee and TVXQ, while other groups with low participation rates include Epik High and f(x).

These participation rates are interesting, because groups like Super Junior and Girls’ Generation have very active global fandoms, yet those numbers are not reflected in participation rates.  Rates may not reflect all fans, just fans who are likely to take (and complete) a survey.  Participation rates may be affected by the activity of the groups.

The iFans Case Studies survey is still active, and now, individuals can take the survey for multiple or  individual groups.

Now that a good deal of data has been collected, look for new research reports on what K-pop fans say about their favorite groups!

iFans: Mapping Kpop’s International Fandom


IFANS: Mapping K-pop’s International Fandom is a scholarly research project that examines global fan attitudes and activities through surveys, collection of information on online communities and analysis of websites.  Crystal S. Anderson, PhD (Elon University) is the Principal Investigator of the studies and Curator of the iFans project site.

Continue reading “iFans: Mapping Kpop’s International Fandom”

Kim Bum Soo

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 Kim Bum Soo






 Polaris Entertainment

 Fan Name


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  • Melon Music Award, R&B/Ballad

Television Appearances

Concert Tours

  • Kim Bum Soo “겟 올라잇” Show, January 2012

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Lost Love

It Will Pass


Sun Setting In My Heart

I Want to See You (Missing You)


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   Best Album 2011 – Greatest Hits (October 2011) (Polaris Entertainment)CD 1

  1. 보고싶다 (3집 타이틀, SBS 드라마 ‘천국의계단’ 주제곡)
  2. 속 ( 1집 타이틀, M/V 김석훈, 명세빈)
  3. 하루 ( 2집 타이틀, M/V 송혜교, 송승헌, 지진희 )
  4. 가슴에 지는 태양 ( 4집 타이틀 )
  5. 바보같은 내게 ( 3집 수록곡 )
  6. 후회가 싫다 ( 4집 수록곡 )
  7. 눈물과 바꾼 사랑 ( 2집 수록곡, KBS 드라마 ‘해신’ 삽입곡 )
  8. 위로 ( 5집 타이틀 )
  9. 슬픔 한가운데 ( 4집 수록곡 )
  10. 그런 이유라는걸 ( MBC 나는 가수다 가창곡 )
  11. 사랑만으론 ( 4집 수록곡, ‘故 앙드레김’ 패션쇼 휘날레곡 )
  12. Be Mine ( 4집 수록곡)
  13. 아름다운 채로 ( 4집 수록곡 )
  14. 나없이 행복할 널 위해 ( 3집 수록곡 )
  1. 니가 날 떠나 ( 3.5집 타이틀, KBS 드라마 ‘해신’ 주제곡 )
  2. 일생동안 ( 2.5집 타이틀 )
  3. 나 가거든 ( 3.5집 KBS드라마 ‘명성황후’ 주제곡 )
  4. 비가 ( MBC 드라마 ‘다모’ 주제곡 )
  5. 비처럼 음악처럼 ( With 故 김현식 )
  6. 한동안 뜸했었지 ( With 사랑과평화
  7. 그대 내게 다시 ( 변진섭 곡 리메이크 )
  8. 사랑일뿐야 ( 김민우 곡 리메이크 )
  9. 잊혀진 계절 ( 이용 곡 리메이크 )
  10. 수요일에는 빨간 장미를 ( 다섯손가락 곡 리메이크 )
  11. 사랑이 저만치 가네 ( 김종찬 곡 리메이크 )
  12. 그대와 영원히 ( 이문세 리메이크 )
  13. ello Goodbye Hello (2집 타이틀 ‘하루’ 영어버전, 빌보드 세일즈챠트 51위 진입곡)
   Solista Part 2 – Vol. 7 (June 2011) (Loen Entertainment)

  1. 이 비가 그치길 바래
  2. 끝사랑
  3. 달라 (with 태연)
  4. My baby (feat. 휘성)
  5. 기억을 걷다
  6. 지나간다 (Piano version)
  7. 끝사랑 Instrumental
   Secret Garden Original Soundtrack     9.  나타나
  Different featuring Taeyeon – Digital Single (January 2011) (Polaris Entertainment)

  1. 달라
  Twentyth Urban – with Lee Kyung Sub (November 2010)

  1. 나 가거든
  2. 나 가거든 (Instrumental)


   Solista Part 1 – Vol. 7 (September 2010) (Loen Entertainment)

  1.  언젠가는(with 이승철)
  2. 지나간다 – 타이틀곡
  3. 피우든 마시든
  4. 괜찮다..
  5. 그대가 들려요
  6. 지.못.미
  7. 지나간다 (Instrumental)
   Giant Original Soundtrack (June 2010)

  1. 러빙 유 (자이언트 Version)
  2. 러빙 유 (자이언트 Instrumental version)
   Slow Man Digital Single (September 2009) (Polaris Entertainment)

  1. Slow Man (featuring 찬양)
  2.  슬픔 활용법 (Planet Shiver Mix Version)
  Color of City (Blue) (July 2009) (MS Entertainment)

  1. 이별의 맛
  2. 이별의 맛 (Instrumental)
  Regrets to Forget Original Soundtrack (May 2009)
  More Than Blue/Sadder than Sad Story Original Soundtrack (2009) 2. 슬픈보다 더 슬퍼 이야기
  Practical Usage of Sadness – Vol. 6 (August 2008) (Mnet Media)

  1. Intro
  2. 슬픈 활용법
  3. Smile Again
  4. 줄다리기
  5. 사랑아
  6. Interlude
  7. 굳은 살
  8. Do You Know That?
  9. 쉬운 이별
  10. 마지막까지
  11. Without Your Love
  12. 님아
  13. 은혜로
  14. 슬픈 활용법(MR)
   So Long – Vol. 5 (April 2006) 

  1. Intro
  2. 위로
  3. Like
  4. 오아시스
  5. Fine (The End)
  6. The one in my life
  7. 약속
  8. 하루 (M/V Version)
  9. 보고싶다 (M/V Version)
  10. 가슴에 지는 태양 (M/V Version)
  11. 후회가 싫다 (Live Version)
  12. 하루 (Live Version)
  13. 보고싶다 (Live Version)
  Emperor of the Sea Original Soundtrack (April 2005)2. 니가 날 떠나
   Live Concert Album (April 2005)

  1. Opening
  2.  바보같은 내게
  3. 나의 너에게
  4. 후회가 싫다
  5. 약속
  6. 하루
  7. 무제 feat. Park Hyo Shin
  8. 한동안 뜸했었지 feat. 사랑과평화
  9. 정상을 향한 독주 feat. Joosuc
  10. 보고싶다
  11. 여행을 떠나요 + 밤이면 밤마다
   …Again (January 2005) (EMI Music Korea)

  1. Intro
  2. Memory
  3. 어떤 그리움
  4. 가려진 시간 사이로
  5. 오래된 사진처럼
  6. 눈이 와요
  7. 1994년 어느 늦은 밤
  8. 내가 너의 곁에 잠시 살았다는 걸
  9. 내 곁에서 떠나가지 말아요
  10. I Believe
  11. 처음 느낌 그대로
  12. 시청 앞 지하철역에서
  The 4th Episode – Vol. 4 (April 2004)

  1. 후회가 싫다
  2. 사랑만으론
  3. 영원에 관하여
  4. 왜 또
  5. 무제 (Duet 박효신)
  6. 가슴에 지는 태양
  7. 슬픔 한가운데
  8. Happiness
  9. 아름다운 채로
  10. 거짓말
  11. Be Mine
  12. 나의 너에게
  13. 한동안 뜸했었지 (Remake)
  14. To Me
  Friends – Vol. 3.5 (July 2003) (Plyzen)

  1. 니가 날 떠나
  2. Lately
  3. 안녕
  4. 영원 (Without You)
  5. 일생동안
  6. 나 가거든
  7. 사랑은 없어
  8. 눈 내리는 겨울밤
  9. 잊혀진 계절
  10. 널 기다리는 동안
  11. Amazing Love
  12.  바람처럼 음악처럼
  13. 주 하나님 지으신 모든 세계
   Missing You – Vol. 3 (December 18, 2002) (Universal Music South Korea)

  1. 보고싶다
  2. 바보같은 내게
  3. 이젠
  4. 사랑해요
  5. 지겨워
  6. My Delight
  7. 이별 뒤에서
  8. 혼자
  9. 날떠나가
  10. The One
  11. 잘못된 이별
  12. 나없이 행복할 널 위해
  13. 일기
  14. 눈속의 너
  15. Hello Good-bye Hello
   New Song and Special -Vol 2.5 (September 2001)

  1. Back At One
  2. 그대 내게 다시
  3. 그런 이유라는걸
  4. 너의 시작으로
  5. 비가와
  6. 비처럼 음악처럼
  7. 잊지마
   Remember – Vol. 2 (November 2000) (Media Synnara)

  1. Once Upon A Day
  2. 하루 (M/V Version)
  3. 그런 이유라는
  4. 그대 내게
  5. 눈물과 바꾼 사랑
  6. 별이 진다네
  7. 잊지마
  8. 사랑이 저만치 가네
  9. 아마도
  10. Rainy Day
  11. 수요일에는 빨간 장미를
  12. 그대와 영원히
  13. 하루만 더
  14. 비처럼 음악처럼
  15. 하루 (Original Version)
  16. 사랑일뿐야 (Bonus Track)
  17. 약속 (Bonus Track)
   A Promise – Vol. 1 (April 1999)

  1. 약속
  2. 사랑이 떠나가네
  3. 사랑일뿐야
  4. 너의 시작으로
  5. 11월(月) 3일(日)…
  6. 비가 와
  7. 더 늦기전에
  8. 이젠 떠나가세요
  9. This Masquerade
  10. 첫사랑

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