For Your Reading Pleasure: A Hallyu Bibliography, Part 15: FANDOM and FAN ACTIVITY

Kaetrena Davis Kendrick, M.S.L.S.

Winthrop University

Welcome to Part 15 of my ongoing series of bibliographic entries about Hallyu.   These entries are listed by year, not by author (TIP: If you know about a title or author and you want to see if it’s included in this listing, use the CTRL + F function).

To learn more about my searching parameters, information-gathering processes, and your ability to access these items, see my earlier essay titled For Your Reading Pleasure: Introducing A Hallyu Bibliography.”  Click for Part 1 , Part 2, Part 3, Part 4,  Part 5 , Part 6, Part 7 , Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11, Part 12, Part 13, and Part 14 of the bibliography.

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Photo credit: Brandon Bolendar, Pixabay.

This is a working post, so if you would like to submit items to this list or to the bibliography, please contact me directly at kaetrena@mailbox.sc.edu.

Fiske, J.  (1992). The cultural economy of fandom.  In  A. Lewis  (Ed.),  The  adoring audience:  Fan  culture  and popular  media  (pp.  30-49). New York:  Routledge.

Leonard, Sean. (2004). Progress against the law: Fan distribution, copyright and the explosive growth of Japanese animation. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://web.mit.edu/seantek/www/papers/progress-doublespaced.pdf

Leonard, Sean. (2005). Progress against the Law: Anime and Fandom, and the Key to the Globalization of Culture. International Journal of Cultural Studies 8.3 (2005): 281-305.

Yuk Ming Lisa Leung. (2005). Virtualizing the ‘Korean Wave’:  The Politics of (Transnational) Cyberfandom in 〈Daejangguem>. Asian Communication Research Volume 2 Number 2, 2005.9, page(s): 65-90. Abstract accessed 2 November 2011 http://www.dbpia.co.kr/view/ar_view.asp?arid=1030479&A=

Shim, Hyunjoo. (2005). Antifans and the internet: An ethnographic study of participatory drama fans in Korean websites. Thesis, Georgia State University.

Pease, Rowan. (2006).  Internet, fandom and K-wave in China. In K. Howard (Ed.) Korean pop music: Riding the wave. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.

Hayashi, Kaori and Eun-Jeung Lee. (2007). The potential of fandom and the limits of soft power: Media representations on the popularity of a Korean melodrama in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal, 10(2): 197-216. doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jym049 (see also, Politics and Soft Power)

Siriyuvasak, Ubonrat & Hyunjoon Shin. (2007). Asianizing Kpop: production, consumption and identification patterns among Thai youth. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8(1): 109-136. 

Lee, Soojin, David Scott and Hyounggon Kim. (2008). Celebrity fan involvement and destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3): 809-832. 

Mori, Yoshitaka. (2008). Winter Sonata and cultural practices of active fans in Japan: Considering middle-aged women as cultural agents. In C.B. Huat and K. Iwabuchi (Eds.) East Asian Pop Culture: Analyzing the Korean Wave. pp. 127-X. Aberdeen: Hong Kong University Press.

Iwabuchi, Koichi. (2010). Undoing inter-national fandom in the age of brand nationalism. Mechademia, 5:87-96.

Lee, Hyangjin. (2010). Buying youth: Japanese fandom of the Korean wave. In Black, D., Stephen Epstein and Alison Tokita (Eds.) Complicated Currents. Clayton, Victoria, Australia: Monash University ePress. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://books.publishing.monash.edu/apps/bookworm/view/Complicated+Currents/122/xhtml/chapter7.html

Rembert-Lang, LaToya D. (2010-2011). Reinforcing the power of Babel: The impact of copyright law on fansubbing. Intellectual Property Brief, 2(2): 21-33.

Jung, Sun. (2011). Fan activism, cybervigilantism, and Othering mechanisms in K-pop fandom. Transformative Works and Cultures. Accessed 8 April 2020 from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/300/287

Jung, Sun. (2011) K-pop, Indonesian fandom, and social media. Transformative Works and Cultures,8. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/289/219

Gatson, Sarah N. and Robin Anne Reid. (2012). Race and ethnicity in fandom. In R.A. Reid and S.N Gatson (Eds.) Race and Ethnicity in Fandom special issue, Transformative Works and Cultures, 8. Accessed 23 August 2012 from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/392/252

Lee, Seung Ah. (2012). Of the fans, by the fans, for the fans: The republic of JYJ. Presented at the Nam Center for Korean Studies’ Hallyu 2.0: The Korean Wave in the Age of Social Media Symposium. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwBKXybAXJQ

Park, Shin-Eui and Woong Jo Chang. (2012). The Korean Wave: Cultivating a global fandom (unpublished). Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/23620889/the-korean-wave-cultivating-a-global-fandom-by-shin-eui-park-

Kim, Andrew Eungi, Fitria Mayasari, and Ingyu Oh. (2013). When tourist audiences encounter each other: Diverging learning behaviors of K-pop fans from Japan and Indonesia. Korea Journal, 53(4): 59-82.

Sung, Sang-Yeon. (2013). K-pop reception and participatory fan culture in Austria. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, (9): 90-104. Accessed 16 June 2016 from https://cross-currents.berkeley.edu/e-journal/issue-9/sung

Jung, Soo Keung. (2014). Global audience participation in the production and consumption of Gangnam Style. Thesis, Georgia State Unversity. Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/communication_theses/106/

Jung, Sun & Doobo Shim. (2014). Social distribution: K-pop fan practices in Indonesia and the ‘Gangnam Style’ phenomenon. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 17(5): 485-501.

Nissim, Otmazgin & Irina Lyan. (2014). Hallyu across the desert: K-pop fandom in Israel and Palestine. Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review, 3(1): 32-55.

Oh, Ingyu & Chong-Mook Lee. (2014). A league of their own: Female supporters of hallyu and Korea-Japan relations. Pacific Focus, 29(2): 284-302.

Williams, J. Patrick & Samantha Xiang Xin Ho. (2016). “Sasaengpaen” or K-pop fan? Singapore youths, authentic identities, and Asian media fandom. Deviant Behavior, 37(1): 81-94.

Habieb, Adnand. (2017). The influence of K-pop in Indonesia’s students behavior. Proceedings of  ISER 50th International Conference. Pp. 47-50. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f944/67c0b42a7b40eba57d91f7e1ca93ff7af9ea.pdf

Swan, Anna Lee. (2017). Situated knowledge, transnational identities: Place and embodiment in K-pop fan reaction videos. Thesis, University of Washington. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/handle/1773/40004

Dwiyota, Sylvia. (2018). The use of code mixing in Tweets by Kpop fans in Twitter. Lingua Litera, 3(1). Retrieved from http://116.251.210.75/index.php/stba1/article/view/9

Hubinette, Tobias. (2018). Who are the Swedish K-pop fans? Revisiting the reception and consumption of Hallyu in post-Gangnam Style Sweden with an emphasis on K-pop. Culture and Empathy, 1(1-4): 34-48. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://www.tobiashubinette.se/korean_popculture_1.pdf

Sari, Dorottya. (2018). The rise of Hallyu in Hungary: An exploratory study about the motivation, behavior, and perception of Hungarian K-pop fans.

Swan, Anna Lee. (2018). Transnational identities and feeling in fandom: place and embodiment in K-pop fan reaction videos. Communication, Culture and Critique, 11(4): 548-565.

Sutton, R. Anderson. (2018). Tracking the Korean wave in transnational Asia: K-pop and K-pop fandom in Indonesia. Asian Musicology, 28: 9-39.

Abd-Rahim, Atiqah. (2019). Online fandom: Social identity and social hierarchy of hallyu fans. The Journal for Undergraduate Ethnography, 9(1). Accessed 7 April 2020 from https://ojs.library.dal.ca/JUE/article/view/8885

Capistrano, Erik, Paolo. (2019). Understanding Filipino Korean pop music fans. Asian Journal of Social Science, 47(1): 59-87.

Crow, Teahlyn Frances. (2019). K-pop, language, and online fandom: An exploration of Korean language use and performativity amongst international K-pop fans. Thesis, Northern Arizona University.

Cruz, Angela, Seo, Yuri, & Binay, Itir. (2019). Cultural globalization from the periphery: Translation practices of English-speaking K-pop fans. Journal of Consumer Culture, In press. (See Also, Language)

De Kosnik, A. & Carrington, A. (2019). Fans of color, fandoms of color. Transformative Works & Cultures, 29(1): 1.

Jansen, Kine Fjeld. (2019). Pop culturally motivated lexical borrowing: Use of Korean in an English-majority fan forum. Thesis, University of Bergen. Accessed 7 April 2020 from http://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/20363

Kang, Jiwon, Lee, Minsung, Park, Eunil et al. (2019). Alliance for my idol: Analyzing the K-pop fandom collaboration network. CHI EA ‘ 19: Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Pp. 1- 6.

Utami, Evi Farsiah. (2019). Social media, celebrity, and fans: A study of Indonesian K-pop fans. Thesis, Taylor’s University. (See Also, Internet and Social Media)

Liu, Chih-Chieh. From ‘Sorry, Sorry’ to ‘That Banana’: Subtitling of a Korean music video as a site of contestation in Taiwan. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/media/5312/04_sorry_sorry_liu.pdf

Vinco, Alessandra & Mazur, Daniela. (n.d.). Fans, hallyu, and broadcast TV: The case of the K-drama “Happy Ending” pioneering in Brazil. Accessed 8 April 2020 from https://congress.aks.ac.kr:52525/korean/files/2_1478846583.pdf

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Into the New World: Research Suggests Multi-Fandom the Norm for Veteran K-pop Fans

Source: Pixabay

While it may seem that the current norm in K-pop is single-fandom (the tendency to support just one artist), data suggests that older K-pop fans started and continue to be multi-fandom. This may be another way the overall K-pop fandom has shifted in the past few years.

With the rise of K-pop groups, their individual fandoms have also garnered more attention, leading some to focus on using a single fandom to define K-pop fandom in general. However, 316 responses collected between April 29, 2011 and March 4, 2015 suggest that K-pop fans of that era exhibited very different behaviors and attitudes. Respondents were asked the open-ended question, “How did you become interested in K-pop?”

Many respondents related their entrance into K-pop with specific groups, and overwhelmingly with one group in particular: SHINee. Other high recurring groups include BigBang, Super Junior and TVXQ. Rain was the most-cited solo artist. What is interesting is that these groups all debuted between 2003 and 2009. The first responses collected in 2011, so none of these groups were brand new to the K-pop scene at the time that respondents encountered them. For this generation of K-pop fan, the appeal of K-pop was asynchronous, meaning that individuals became fans, not as a result of debut promotion or marketing, but by other means.

More importantly, respondents routinely noted that once they discovered one K-pop group, they were motivated to look for additional groups. One noted, “My friend showed me SHINee’s Lucifer video, and I was immediately addicted to them.  So then I started looking up other groups too.”  Another responded wrote: “I started listening to more BigBang, and then other groups such as 2NE1 and SHINee, and then read a ton of Wikipedia pages about different groups and record labels and learned about the training system that K-pop stars go through before debuting. I also started watching variety shows that K-pop idols appear on, and find that whole concept really interesting too.” I call this phenomenon branching.

Some respondents go through a great deal of effort to expand to additional K-pop groups. One respondent explained how a search to find one K-pop song led to more: “However, the obsession didn’t just stop with that song. During the many hours that I spent trying to find the name of that song, I discovered many other catchy tunes and fell in love with a new genre of music that I had never heard of before.”  Several respondents use the term “research” to describe the activity of looking for more K-pop groups:  “I became interested in K-pop when I accidentally happened upon a Super Junior song on YouTube about 3-4 years ago. I don’t remember what song it was. But after I heard it I was thinking… Wow. This is good stuff. I want more. I wanna hear more. I researched, found more groups I absolutely fell in love with. Then 2-3 years ago, I found Big Bang, followed by 2NE1. And now all of the other amazing groups I love.”

For some, the quest for more K-pop groups takes them to other forms of Korean entertainment. K-drama and K-pop are linked, as members of K-pop groups often star in Korean television dramas and perform on soundtracks for the shows. One respondent noted:  “I happened across Kdramas and liked an actor in it. I found out he was a singer and then discovered other singers, groups, bands, etc.” Another explained:  “Hulu.com recommended a Kdrama to me called “Boys over Flowers” and as I became more interested in the characters and the OST for the show, I started to look up various actors/singers on YouTube.”

And while “idols” may be the way many are introduced to K-pop, the phenomenon of branching may take fans far afield. One respondent wrote:  “I think, what’s 2pm? I think my friend had mentioned groups named 2pm and 2am to me before, and I thought they were silly names. But I really liked Jason in Dream High, so I decided to look up this Wooyoung on YouTube. That day I discovered my love for K-pop. I became a hardcore Hottest, and expanded the groups and genres I listened to little by little until I was listening to anything from rap to pop to ballads to indie. All in a language I can’t completely understand.”

One respondent summed up the branching phenomenon with this formula:

JPop = discovered Tohoshinki = wiki = O.O = OMG! = google other kpop artists

Such findings suggest earlier generations of K-pop fans tend to develop more broad interests in K-pop that go beyond one group, while more contemporary fans seem to be more devoted to single groups. By only focusing exclusively on one group, they may be less knowledgeable about the larger K-pop and as a result may have distorted perceptions of it.  These findings also support  earlier findings that point to a more diverse general K-pop fandom, one that at the very least, is made up of those who support individual K-pop groups and those who support K-pop in general. Both may be needed for the continued viability of K-pop. Such findings reveal fan behavior that suggests that the appeal of K-pop is more complicated.  The K-pop landscape continues to change.

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Into the New World: Research Suggests Multi-fandom the Norm for Veteran K-pop Fans by Crystal S. Anderson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Fandom Case Study: Girls’ Generation (SNSD)

Fandom Case Study: Girls’ Generation (SNSD)

 

Girls' Generation
Girls’ Generation

Crystal S. Anderson, PhD

Associate Professor of English, Longwood University

Finally, the first fandom case study is complete on KPopCulture! Girls’ Generation (SNSD) Fandom Case Study contains an introduction to the discourse surrounding the group, which captures the difference between the way fans view the female group and the way commentators view the group:

Nevertheless, the group boasts one of the most active and well-organized global fandoms with fans who document the activities of the group as well as engage in philanthropic activities in the name of the group. This case study explores SNSD fans and their activities. SONES, or fans of SNSD, like the group for a variety of reasons, including the group’s music, appearance and individual members. Yet, there are some fans who are describe themselves as “not fans.” SONES well-organized websites provide fans with information about the group, images, video and forums for discussion. Site administrators also participate in philanthropic activities. SONEs also administer a variety of Twitter accounts, Facebook pages and Tumblrs, both in English and in other languages.  SONEs can be found in a variety of countries, including the United Kingdom, France, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Peru, Spain, Colombia, Italy, Poland and Venezuela.  SONEs not only view videos and listen to the songs of SNSD, they perform the choreography and cover their favorite songs.

It also contains an analysis of survey data and a compilation of email interviews with fans. Read more and see downloadable and complete data sets at KPopCulture!

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